Biology and You Section 1 Biology is the

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Biology and You, Section 1 � Biology is the study of life. � Individual

Biology and You, Section 1 � Biology is the study of life. � Individual living things = organisms � Scientists use these life properties to distinguish between life and non-life: -Organisms have cells -Organisms get and use energy -Organisms maintain a stable internal environment= homeostasis -Organisms reproduce -Organisms respond/adjust to the environment -Organisms pass on traits to offspring = heredity -Organisms grow and develop

SEVEN THEMES � The science of biology has seven recurring themes: � Cellular structure

SEVEN THEMES � The science of biology has seven recurring themes: � Cellular structure and function � Reproduction � Metabolism � Homeostasis � Heredity � Evolution � Interdependence

CELLS � The smallest units of life � Some organisms only have 1=unicellular Examples

CELLS � The smallest units of life � Some organisms only have 1=unicellular Examples include bacteria, paramecium Some organisms have more than 1= multicellular Examples include rosebush, human being

REPRODUCTION � The process by which organisms make more of their own kind �

REPRODUCTION � The process by which organisms make more of their own kind � Insures continuation of the species

Energy � All living things must be able to obtain energy and use it

Energy � All living things must be able to obtain energy and use it for cell processes � Energy is needed to grow, move, and process information � The sun is the ultimate source of energy � Green things, such as some bacteria, algae, and green plants change light energy into food molecules during photosynthesis.

Homeostasis � The maintenance of a stable, internal environment � Homeostasis is maintained despite

Homeostasis � The maintenance of a stable, internal environment � Homeostasis is maintained despite the external environment. � Examples of mechanisms include Body temperature, respiration rates, and heart rate

Heredity � Living things pass traits on to young through genes � Genes are

Heredity � Living things pass traits on to young through genes � Genes are the basic unit of heredity � Genes are coded in DNA � Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring � A change in the DNA of an organism is called a mutation—if change occurs in the sex cells, a new trait can be passed on � Sickle Cell Anemia is an example

Evolution � Change in the inherited characteristics of a species over time is called

Evolution � Change in the inherited characteristics of a species over time is called evolution � A species is a grouping of organisms that can reproduce offspring that can also reproduce � Charles Darwin, a British naturalist described a mechanism for evolution called natural selection

Interdependence �A group of living things that share the same space is called a

Interdependence �A group of living things that share the same space is called a community � The organisms in a community live and interact with each other � Ecology is the branch of Biology that studies these interactions � Living things also interact with the nonliving environment

Biology in Your World � Modern biology is concerned with solving some real world

Biology in Your World � Modern biology is concerned with solving some real world problems � Preserving the environment � Improving the food supply � Understanding the human genome � Fast food french fries are a great example! � Potatoes that are not suitable can be used to feed cattle � Leftover potato bits provide methane gas � French fry soaking water, rich in nutrients, can be used to water and fertilize agricultural crops

Improving the Food Supply �A new process, genetically engineered food crops, gives foods new

Improving the Food Supply �A new process, genetically engineered food crops, gives foods new improvements � Food crops can be made to be poisonous to insect pests � Food crops can be made resistant to herbicides � Food crops can be changed to have improved nutrient content

The Human Genome � In April, 2003 (ahead of schedule) scientists cracked the human

The Human Genome � In April, 2003 (ahead of schedule) scientists cracked the human DNA code and completely sequenced the human genome � A genome is all the genetic information an organism has coded in its DNA

Fighting Disease � AIDS and Cancer are big areas of research � AIDS is

Fighting Disease � AIDS and Cancer are big areas of research � AIDS is caused by a virus that attacks the immune system � Cancer is caused by a breakdown in the mechanism that controls cell division � New diseases, such as West Nile Virus and Mad Cow Disease cause need for more research � Gene therapy may help cure diseases such as cystic fibrosis