Biolody Field work Practical ecology Identify species and

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Biolody Field work Practical ecology Identify species and estimate population sizes Study ecological interactions

Biolody Field work Practical ecology Identify species and estimate population sizes Study ecological interactions

Safety and ethical guidelines on field study 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Safety and ethical guidelines on field study 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Dos 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Check weather forecast Suitable clothing Personal checklist

Dos 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Check weather forecast Suitable clothing Personal checklist and an equipment checklist. Bring enough water and some food Leave a journey plan and let others know Safe retreat 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Dos 2. Follow existing paths. Repeated trampling of areas other than paths can be

Dos 2. Follow existing paths. Repeated trampling of areas other than paths can be harmful to the ecosystem and can prevent the regeneration of vegetation which may result in soil erosion. 3. Bring a pen and a notebook. Observation and good data records are the keys for successful field studies. 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Don’ts 1. Litter – take home all litter. 2. Avoid disposable wastes. 3. Harm

Don’ts 1. Litter – take home all litter. 2. Avoid disposable wastes. 3. Harm any wildlife – respect nature. 4. Report injured wildlife to AFCD or KFBG 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Distribution and abundance of organisms 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Distribution and abundance of organisms 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Sampling the study of a defined area (e. g. a habitat) by studying parts

Sampling the study of a defined area (e. g. a habitat) by studying parts of the area take several samples from a habitat, making the assumption that these samples are unbiased and representative of the habitat to ensure that the samples are unbiased, they are selected randomly random sampling 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Sampling using a quadrat one of the simplest ways of sampling a habitat a

Sampling using a quadrat one of the simplest ways of sampling a habitat a quadrat: a square frame made of wood or metal 19. 10 Study of local habitats A quadrat

Sampling using quadrats to use the quadrat… l l Generate a random coordinates of

Sampling using quadrats to use the quadrat… l l Generate a random coordinates of the site put the quadrat at the random location Count the plants and animals inside it, ignore anything outside the quadrat repeat the process again in different parts of the field 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Sampling using quadrats to use the quadrat… l calculate the average number of individuals

Sampling using quadrats to use the quadrat… l calculate the average number of individuals per unit square for each species and measure the area of the habitat under study to estimate the density of each speices 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Sampling using quadrats limitations l l it will be hard to count fast-moving animals,

Sampling using quadrats limitations l l it will be hard to count fast-moving animals, this method is limited to vegetation and slow-moving or stationary animals the quadrat must also be placed on a fairly flat piece of land Activity 19. 5 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Sampling using a line transect this method is used to record exactly where each

Sampling using a line transect this method is used to record exactly where each species or type of organism is found a line transect can be made from a string marked at regular intervals l it is stretched across the habitat you want to examine l all the organisms touching the string are recorded with their distance from one end of the line called the ‘origin’ 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Sampling using a line transect How to make a line transect, and illustrate the

Sampling using a line transect How to make a line transect, and illustrate the results with a profile diagram stake line transect regular internal marks 1 m origin graph paper height (m) soil 0 1 m 1 19. 10 Study of local habitats 2 3 4 5 6 distance from origin (m) 7 8

Sampling using belt transects a better method than line transect belt transect is made

Sampling using belt transects a better method than line transect belt transect is made by: l laying out two parallel strings, perhaps one metre or less apart and record the plants between them l or placing quadrats continuously or in regular intervals along a transect line Quadrat Quadrat 1 2 3 4 5 1 m 19. 10 Study of local habitats A belt transec t

Sampling using belt transects the distribution and relative abundance of different species along the

Sampling using belt transects the distribution and relative abundance of different species along the belt transect can be studied the results can be represented by a ‘kite’ diagram or histogram 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Sampling using belt transects kite diagrams histograms species 4 species 3 species 2 species

Sampling using belt transects kite diagrams histograms species 4 species 3 species 2 species 1 Distance along transect line (m) Think about 19. 10 Study of local habitats Percentage cover species 4 species 3 species 2 species 1 Distance along transect line (m)

Measurement of abiotic factors 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Measurement of abiotic factors 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Common instruments for measuring abiotic factors Light intensity p. H Air movement Light meter

Common instruments for measuring abiotic factors Light intensity p. H Air movement Light meter p. H meter Anemome ter 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Common instruments for measuring abiotic factors Temperatur Dissolved oxgen. Humidity e Salinity Electronic thermometer

Common instruments for measuring abiotic factors Temperatur Dissolved oxgen. Humidity e Salinity Electronic thermometer Refractometer p. H meter 19. 10 Study of local habitats Thermohygrom eter

Field study 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Field study 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Field study 1 Studying a freshwater stream The major factor influencing the distribution and

Field study 1 Studying a freshwater stream The major factor influencing the distribution and abundance of living organisms in a freshwater stream is the directional flow of water from upstream. In order to survive in streams, organisms there may have different morphology and physiology compared to those in terrestrial habitats. 19. 10 Study of local habitats

A. Aims Refer to the aims of Field study 1, try to list the

A. Aims Refer to the aims of Field study 1, try to list the aims of studying a stream. B. Precautions 1. Wear canvas shoes with adequate soles. 2. Wear trousers instead of shorts. Wear long-sleeved shirts. 3. Be careful of slippery rock surfaces. 19. 10 Study of local habitats

19. 10 Study of local habitats

19. 10 Study of local habitats

C. Equipment Metre-rule Compass Thermometer 1 Hand lenses 1 Light meter 1 Rubber gloves

C. Equipment Metre-rule Compass Thermometer 1 Hand lenses 1 Light meter 1 Rubber gloves 2 1 1 pair Flow meter Trowel Soft brushes Sorting tray (white) Beaker (100 cm 3) Reagent bottles 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 19. 10 Study of local habitats Fish nets Forceps Plastic bags Transect line Vials of different sizes 6

D. Procedure Field work 1. select a section of a stream for study. 2.

D. Procedure Field work 1. select a section of a stream for study. 2. Fix a transect line across the stream. 3. Record depth at suitable intervals along the line. 4. Be sure to put any rocks you have moved back to their original position. 5. draw a cross sectional profile diagram. 19. 10 Study of local habitats

2. Draw a sketch map of the area in which you are working. Indicate

2. Draw a sketch map of the area in which you are working. Indicate the flow direction, composition of substrates (sand/gravel/pebbles/boulders), position of the trees which are related to the habitat (Do the trees provide shading to the stream bed? ). 3. Record the appearance of the area of your study, including water colour, smell and any floating material or foam. 19. 10 Study of local habitats

4. Measure the abiotic factors: • Light intensity (on the water surface and at

4. Measure the abiotic factors: • Light intensity (on the water surface and at the bottom of the stream) • Temperature (both air and water) • Average current speed (For each factor, measure at different points and consider taking an average) 5. Fill bottles with stream water and bring them back to school for chemical analysis. 19. 10 Study of local habitats

6. Use a trowel to collect about 1 kg of sediment from different parts

6. Use a trowel to collect about 1 kg of sediment from different parts of the bottom of the stream. Put the samples in plastic bags and bring them back to school for further investigation. 7. Record approximate numbers of plants (including algae if possible). Note down their roles in the ecosystem. Collect some specimens for further microscopic investigation. 19. 10 Study of local habitats

8. Find, identify and record animals found on the water surface, in the water,

8. Find, identify and record animals found on the water surface, in the water, on the surface of rocks at the bottom and beneath the sediment at the bottom and on the water plants. Put them in a white sorting tray for identification and observation. Record their external features, classification and ways of adaptation. All animals should be placed back into the water before leaving the site. 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Laboratory work 1. Analyse the water sample in the laboratory. Measure the p. H,

Laboratory work 1. Analyse the water sample in the laboratory. Measure the p. H, dissolved oxygen, ammonium content, phosphate content, total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand. 2. Analyse the particle sizes of the sediment. Use the information to write a report. 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Day 3: I investigation: Mangrove 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Day 3: I investigation: Mangrove 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Day 2: 牛糞小生境大揭秘 Big secret of the cow dung microhabitat 19. 10 Study of

Day 2: 牛糞小生境大揭秘 Big secret of the cow dung microhabitat 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Day 4: Micro exploration a. m. Presentation pm! 19. 10 Study of local habitats

Day 4: Micro exploration a. m. Presentation pm! 19. 10 Study of local habitats

19. 10 Study of local habitats

19. 10 Study of local habitats