Biochemistry levels of organization Levels of Organization l

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Biochemistry & levels of organization

Biochemistry & levels of organization

Levels of Organization l Sub-atomic particles ……. put together make l Atoms……………. . .

Levels of Organization l Sub-atomic particles ……. put together make l Atoms……………. . . put together make l Molecules (monomers) …put together make l Macromolecules (polymers) …. . . . put together make l Organelles l Cells & Cell parts … put together make (smallest unit of life)

l Cells that work together make…. Tissues l Tissues work together to make…Organs l

l Cells that work together make…. Tissues l Tissues work together to make…Organs l Organs work together in …Organ Systems

Sub-atomic Particles l Sub = smaller or under l Atomic = atom l -----------------------------

Sub-atomic Particles l Sub = smaller or under l Atomic = atom l ----------------------------- l Protons (+) l Neutrons (o) l Electrons (-)

l Nucleus Atoms = protons & neutrons in center of atom l Electron Cloud

l Nucleus Atoms = protons & neutrons in center of atom l Electron Cloud = area around nucleus where electrons move about

Atoms l The number of protons in an atom determines the Element l The

Atoms l The number of protons in an atom determines the Element l The most common elements in living things are: l. C H N O P S

Carbon l Hydrogen l Nitrogen l Oxygen l Phosphorous l Sulfur l Elements we

Carbon l Hydrogen l Nitrogen l Oxygen l Phosphorous l Sulfur l Elements we need in only very small amounts are called l Trace elements l

Carbon Based Life Forms l Life on earth is carbon-based l Carbon atoms have

Carbon Based Life Forms l Life on earth is carbon-based l Carbon atoms have unique properties l that enable the construction of the l VERY large molecules needed for life. l Carbon forms the l framework for l Macromolecules

Carbon Atoms: l Can bond to 4 other atoms l Form short strong bonds

Carbon Atoms: l Can bond to 4 other atoms l Form short strong bonds l Can make double bonds l Can form long chains and rings

Monomers l Single molecules that make up all living things 1) monosaccharides = single

Monomers l Single molecules that make up all living things 1) monosaccharides = single sugars l 2) glycerol – alcohol used to connect things l 3) fatty acids – make l 4) amino acids - make l 5) Nucleotides – found in l - make l

1) Monosaccharides A) are carbohydrates = made of only C, H, O l carbon

1) Monosaccharides A) are carbohydrates = made of only C, H, O l carbon + water l B) examples : l 1) glucose – made by photosynthesis l 2) fructose – fruit sugar l C) 2 bound together make a disaccharide l example disaccharide = sucrose l (table sugar) l D) many can bond together = polysaccharide l

2) Glycerol l A) alcohol that can bond to 3 other monomers l B)

2) Glycerol l A) alcohol that can bond to 3 other monomers l B) makes a triglyceride when bound to 3 fatty acids triglycerides C)lipid macromolecules l D) phospholipid l macromolecules l

3) Fatty Acids A) acid followed by a Hydrocarbon chain l (chain of H

3) Fatty Acids A) acid followed by a Hydrocarbon chain l (chain of H & C) l HC chains are hydrophobic l (water fearing) don’t mix w/ H 2 O l B) straight chains are saturated fatty acids l C) bent chains are unsaturated fatty acids l D) make lipids and l Phospholipid macromolecules l

4) Amino Acids Made of a C with 4 things attached l 1) a

4) Amino Acids Made of a C with 4 things attached l 1) a hydrogen l 2) an amino group NH 3 l 3) an acid COOH l 4) an R group l 20 different R groups so… l 20 different Amino acids (some = essential aa) l (must be part of diet) l Make protein macromolecules l

5) Phosphate l 1) made of a phosphate surrounded by oxygens 2) hydrophilic l

5) Phosphate l 1) made of a phosphate surrounded by oxygens 2) hydrophilic l water – loving l 3) part of nucleotide monomers l And l 4) part of phospholipid macromolecules l

6) Nucleotides l The largest monomer…actually includes a monosaccharide l Made of 3 parts

6) Nucleotides l The largest monomer…actually includes a monosaccharide l Made of 3 parts l 1) one 5 carbon sugar l 2) phosphate l 3) nitrogen containing base

Two different 5 carbon sugars can be used l 1) ribose in RNA l

Two different 5 carbon sugars can be used l 1) ribose in RNA l 2) deoxyribose in DNA l

l 5 different N-bases can be used Guanine l Cytosine l Adenine l Thymine

l 5 different N-bases can be used Guanine l Cytosine l Adenine l Thymine l Uracil l l (ine …in DNA)

Condensation dehydration rxn Remove water (in form of H from one molecules and OH

Condensation dehydration rxn Remove water (in form of H from one molecules and OH from the other) l In order to stick to molecules together l

Polymers = Macromolecules Monomers bonded together to make l polymers l l Chemical reactions

Polymers = Macromolecules Monomers bonded together to make l polymers l l Chemical reactions that bond monomers together called… Condensation (bring together) dehydration reactions (remove H 2 O)

5 Macromolecules l 1) polysaccharides l 2) Lipids l 3) phospholipids l 4) proteins

5 Macromolecules l 1) polysaccharides l 2) Lipids l 3) phospholipids l 4) proteins l 5) nucleic acids

1) Polysaccharides l Made of many single sugars (carbohydrates) 1) starch – how plants

1) Polysaccharides l Made of many single sugars (carbohydrates) 1) starch – how plants store glucose l 2) glycogen – how animals store glucose l 3) cellulose – makes plant cell walls & l is the fiber in our diet l (we can’t digest it) l All 3 are made of chains of glucose l

2) Lipids Made of fatty acids & glycerol l Hydrophobic l 1) fats –

2) Lipids Made of fatty acids & glycerol l Hydrophobic l 1) fats – solid at room temp. (saturated f. a. ) l store energy in animals l 2) oils – liquid at room temp. (unsaturated f. a. ) l store energy in plants l l 3) waxes – used to waterproof l 4) steroids – hormones help w/ homeostasis

3) Phospholipids l A) Made of glycerol, 2 f. a. s & a phosphate

3) Phospholipids l A) Made of glycerol, 2 f. a. s & a phosphate -Phosphate head is hydrophilic l (water loving) l l -Hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic l B) Makes up cell membranes

4) Proteins A)Made of chains of aminoacids l Folded into 3 -D shapes l

4) Proteins A)Made of chains of aminoacids l Folded into 3 -D shapes l B) Most of muscle is protein l C) Most enzymes are proteins l Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions l Make the rxns in a cell run fast enough to stay alive. l

5) Nucleic Acids l A) Made of chains of nucleotides B) If ribose is

5) Nucleic Acids l A) Made of chains of nucleotides B) If ribose is the sugar = RNA l ribonucleic acid l takes directions from nucleus out to cell l l __________________________________________________________ C) If deoxyribose is the sugar = DNA l deoxyribonucleic acid l is the code that stores all the directions for how to run the cell (stays in nucleus) l Makes up chromosomes l

Hydrolysis rxn Using water to break 2 molecules apart l Put water (in form

Hydrolysis rxn Using water to break 2 molecules apart l Put water (in form of H and OH back in) l