Biochemistry A Connection Between Life and Chemistry What

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Biochemistry A Connection Between Life and Chemistry

Biochemistry A Connection Between Life and Chemistry

What are living things made of? �Element—simplest _______substance; Pure can’t be broken down into

What are living things made of? �Element—simplest _______substance; Pure can’t be broken down into simpler substances. Elements that Make Up Living Things Element Chemical Symbol % by Mass in Human Body Hydrogen H 9. 5% Oxygen O 65% Carbon C 18. 5% Phosphorus P 1. 0% Nitrogen N 3. 3% Sulfur S 0. 3%

Other important elements to know: Na Sodium (0. 2%) Cl Chlorine (0. 2%) K

Other important elements to know: Na Sodium (0. 2%) Cl Chlorine (0. 2%) K Potassium (0. 4%) Ca Calcium (1. 5%) F Fluorine

Atoms can be divided into 3 subatomic particles: Particle Charge Location Proton + Nucleus

Atoms can be divided into 3 subatomic particles: Particle Charge Location Proton + Nucleus Neutron 0 Nucleus Electron - Electron Cloud Draw a picture of an atom below:

Protons In neutral atoms the number of _______ Electrons equals the number of _______.

Protons In neutral atoms the number of _______ Electrons equals the number of _______. Electrons are arranged in energy levels. The first 18 8 three levels hold ____, and _____ electrons 2 respectively.

Draw a Hydrogen atom, an Oxygen atom and a carbon atom below: Hydrogen (1

Draw a Hydrogen atom, an Oxygen atom and a carbon atom below: Hydrogen (1 proton, 1 electron) Oxygen (8 protons, 8 electrons, 8 neutrons) Carbon (6 protons, 6 electrons, 6 neutrons)

Atoms of 2 or more different elements can be ___________ joined together to form

Atoms of 2 or more different elements can be ___________ joined together to form Chemically compounds, which have properties different from those of the individual elements. C 6 H 12 O 6 Examples: H 2 O Na. Cl There are 2 types of compounds: Organic Compounds— Compounds containing Carbon (Living) that do NOT contain Inorganic Compounds— Compounds Carbon (Non-living)

Mixture—a combination of elements that are not ________ combined. The mixture has Chemically properties

Mixture—a combination of elements that are not ________ combined. The mixture has Chemically properties similar to the elements that make it up. Examples: Sugar Water Blood (mix of salt, H 2 O, and cells) A chemical formula is the symbolic representation of a Compound Molecule _______ or _______. Example: H 2 O Elements: H- Hydrogen= 2 atoms O- Oxygen= 1 atom Atoms Subscript--tells how many ________ of a particular element are used in the compound. If there is no number written, it is assumed to be 1). Example: KMn. O 4 Elements: K- 1 Potassium Permanganate Mn- 1 O- 4

A number outside of parentheses applies to all elements inside of the parentheses. Multiply

A number outside of parentheses applies to all elements inside of the parentheses. Multiply each subscript inside the parentheses by the subscript outside of the parentheses. Example: Na(OH)2 Sodium Hydroxide (NH 4)3 PO 4 Ammonium Phosphate Elements: Na= 1 O= 2 H= 2 Elements: N= 3 H= 12 P= 1 O= 4

Chemical Bonds REMEMBER: Compounds form when elements Chemically are ________ combined. Chemical bond—the _____

Chemical Bonds REMEMBER: Compounds form when elements Chemically are ________ combined. Chemical bond—the _____ that joins the Force atoms of a compound; bonds contain energy. Atoms need to have their _____ energy Outer level filled to be stable. In order to do this they bond with other atoms.

3 Types of Bonds: 1. Covalent Bond—two atoms share _______ electrons so that both

3 Types of Bonds: 1. Covalent Bond—two atoms share _______ electrons so that both atoms have full outer energy levels. Ø _________ type of bond Strongest ØA _________ is a group of Molecule atoms held together by covalent bonds.

Examples: 4 a. Carbon—can form ______ covalent bonds. Methane

Examples: 4 a. Carbon—can form ______ covalent bonds. Methane

b. Water

b. Water

 2. Ionic Bond—electrons are ________ from one atom to another so Transferred that

2. Ionic Bond—electrons are ________ from one atom to another so Transferred that both atoms have full outer energy levels. One atom loses electrons and becomes ____ + charged. The other atom gains electrons and becomes ___ charged. Why? ion A charged atom is called an _____. Water Ionic bonds break apart in ________.

Ex. Na. Cl Figure 4. 2: Dissolution of Na. Cl in water. After U.

Ex. Na. Cl Figure 4. 2: Dissolution of Na. Cl in water. After U. Arizona Biology Project.

Properties of Water Remember, so far we have talked about 2 types of chemical

Properties of Water Remember, so far we have talked about 2 types of chemical bonds. 1. Covalent Bonds 2. Ionic Bonds

Today we will focus on the 3 rd type: 3. Hydrogen Bond—links 2 ______

Today we will focus on the 3 rd type: 3. Hydrogen Bond—links 2 ______ Polar _______ together; (NOT atoms) Molecules Hydrogen bonds are very _______ Weak! Hydrogen bonds only form when molecules are very __________. close together Hydrogen bonds determine the shapes of ________ and ____. Proteins DNA

Polar Molecule—a molecule with unequal Charge areas of __________. Non-Polar Molecule—a molecule with Charge

Polar Molecule—a molecule with unequal Charge areas of __________. Non-Polar Molecule—a molecule with Charge equal areas of _________. Example: In water electrons are shared Unevenly ________, so different parts of the molecule have different _______. Charges

Draw a water molecule in the space below: - + +

Draw a water molecule in the space below: - + +

Draw a diagram showing how water molecules form hydrogen bonds:

Draw a diagram showing how water molecules form hydrogen bonds:

Other Properties of Water: Cohesion— Attraction between water molecules (creates surface tension). Water forms

Other Properties of Water: Cohesion— Attraction between water molecules (creates surface tension). Water forms drops. Example: Adhesion— Attraction of water molecules to another polar molecule. Example: Water sticking to glass! Water is called the _____________; many universal solvent things can dissolve in water because it is a polar molecule. Solvent = A substance in which something can be dissolved!

Draw a picture in the space below showing how water can dissolve an ionic

Draw a picture in the space below showing how water can dissolve an ionic compound such as salt (Na. Cl). Water is unique because its solid form (ice) is ____ dense less than the liquid form. Question: Why is this property of water important to aquatic plant and animal life?

Macromolecules The study of compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms is called _________

Macromolecules The study of compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms is called _________ chemistry. Organic Macromolecule--______ molecule. There are 4 main Large groups of biological macromolecules (biomolecules). Macromolecules are made by linking smaller molecules called ___________ to form _______. Monomer Polymers Monomers are joined together through a chemical process called dehydration synthesis. Polymers can be broken down into their component parts through a chemical process called hydrolysis.

Carbohydrates Structure of Carbohydrates Atoms in a carbohydrate: _______, Carbon ________ and ________. Hydrogen

Carbohydrates Structure of Carbohydrates Atoms in a carbohydrate: _______, Carbon ________ and ________. Hydrogen Oxygen CHO Made of single sugar units (monomers) called: Monosaccharide ______________; they can be joined together to form complex carbohydrates called ______________. Polysaccharide The elements in a carbohydrate are combined in a ratio of 1: 2: 1 Example: a carbohydrate with 6 carbons has the C 6 H 12 O 6 formula: __________

Carbohydrates Functions of Carbohydrates, especially _________, are Glucose the main _________ source used by

Carbohydrates Functions of Carbohydrates, especially _________, are Glucose the main _________ source used by the Energy body. In animals, excess sugar (glucose) is stored as ___________. Glycogen Plants store sugar in the form of __________. Starch Plants use the carbohydrate cellulose to strengthen their ___________. Cell Walls ***Why is cellulose important to humans? We don’t digest it so it passes through our digestive system as “fiber!”

Notice the linkage!

Notice the linkage!

Proteins Structure of Proteins Atoms in a protein: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and __________. Nitrogen

Proteins Structure of Proteins Atoms in a protein: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and __________. Nitrogen CHON Monomer: _____________ Amino Acids _______________ join to Amino Acids make long chains that are folded into 3 -D structures. The shape of a protein determines its function.

Function of Proteins form _______ and Bone _________. Muscle Proteins called antibodies help fight

Function of Proteins form _______ and Bone _________. Muscle Proteins called antibodies help fight _____________. Disease Proteins called enzymes control ____________________ in the The speed of reactions body. Hemoglobin is a protein that helps red blood cells carry oxygen. When you eat ______, beans, eggs and meat _____ you get protein. rice

Lipids Structure of Lipids are not __________ in water. Soluble This is because water

Lipids Structure of Lipids are not __________ in water. Soluble This is because water is polar and most lipids are nonpolar. *****Use your knowledge of polar and nonpolar substances to explain why lipids are unable to dissolve in a polar substance such as water? Because lipids are nonpolar they are not attracted to either end of the H 2 O molecule, and therefore dissociation does not occur.

Carbon Lipids are made mostly from ______ and ______ atoms. They also contain Hydrogen

Carbon Lipids are made mostly from ______ and ______ atoms. They also contain Hydrogen oxygen. (CH)O There are 3 categories of lipids: ______, ______ and fats phospholipids _______. Steroids Many lipids are formed when a ______ glycerol molecule combines with compounds called ______________. Fatty acids

Function of Lipids cook food Lipids can be used to _____. Lipids are important

Function of Lipids cook food Lipids can be used to _____. Lipids are important parts of ____ Cell ______ and ___________ Membrane Leaf (wax) coverings. Lipids also form steroids which serve as _________ messengers in the body. chemical

Nucleic Acids Structure of Nucleic Acids are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, Phosphorus nitrogen

Nucleic Acids Structure of Nucleic Acids are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, Phosphorus nitrogen & ___________. Nucleic Acids are polymers made from monomers called _______________. nucleotides

Function of Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids store and transmit ________, or _______ Genetic Genes

Function of Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids store and transmit ________, or _______ Genetic Genes information. There are 2 kinds of nucleic acids: ______________ (RNA) Ribonucleic Acids and __________________ Deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA).

1. Based only on chemical structure, how could you tell carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic

1. Based only on chemical structure, how could you tell carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids apart? 2. What elements do all 4 macromolecules have in common? 3. Describe one function of each group of macromolecules.