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BIOCHEMICAL MOLECULES Opeña, Diether F. Uson, Catherine Mae C Grade 11 – St. Mary Mazzarello.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: �What is Biochemical Molecules? �What are the different types of Biochemical Molecules? �What are the function of each Biochemical Molecules? �What are the structures of each Biochemical Molecules? �What are the importants of each Biochemica Molecules to our body?
BIOCHEMICAL MOLECULES �Biochemical Molecules also known as a Biomolecules is an organic molecule and especially a macromolecule in living organisms. �And organisms is made up of of carbon and hydrogen in combination with other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur that are covalent bonded. �Biomolecules make up each cell in organisms
TYPES OF BIOCHEMICAL MOLECULES �The four types of Biochemical Molecules that found in our body are : �Carbohydrates �Lipids �Proteins �Nucleic Acids
�Most of these Biochemical Molecules in living systems are polymers of much smaller molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. �Lipids are also large molecules but are not considered as biopolymers.
CARBOHYDRATES � Carbohydrates also known as sugars are biomolecules that composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. � The name carbohydrate is derived from its general formula (CH 2 O)n which shows that it is a hydrate of carbon. � Carbohydrates are important components of every organisms. � They are important components of nucleic acids and the cellulose in plants that gives them a rigid structure.
�Carbohydrates supply energy to all cells in the body. �Carbohydrates function as an energy source of the body and acts a Bio fuel.
MONOSACCHARIDES �Monosaccharides are called as simple sugars. �The general chemical formula of a monosaccharide is ( CH 2 O)n. �The general classifications of monosaccharides are based on the number of carbon atoms. �The most common monosaccharide molecules contain five or six carbon atoms that are bonded together either in a chain or in ring form
Number of Carbon Atoms Types of Monosaccharides 3 Triose 4 Tetrose 5 Pentose 6 Hexose 7 Heptose Examples Aldotriose (glyceraldehyde) Ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone) Erythrose, Threose Ribose, Deoxyribose Glucose, Galactose Sedoheptulose, Mannoheptulose
Formula Common Name Glucose C₆H₁₂O₆ Blood sugar, dextrose, corn sugar, grape sugar Fructose C₆H₁₂O₆ Galactose C₆H₁₂O₆ Monosaccharides fruit sugar, levulose brain sugar
DISACCHARIDES � Disaccharides is a sugar molecules which are composed of two simple sugar units. �Sucrose is a disaccharide in which the ring forms of glucose and fructose ate joined.
Composition Formula Common Name Sucrose Fructose + Glucose C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁ Cane Sugar Lactose Galactose + Glucose C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁ Milk Sugar Maltose Glucose + Glucose C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁ Malt Sugar Disaccharide
POLYSACCHARIDES �Polysaccharides are polymers which are composed of units of simple sugar molecules. �Starch a major component of grains and many vegetables is a polysaccharide composed of glucose units. �Cellulose which is the fibrous or woody material of plants and trees is another polysaccharide formed from glucose.
LIPIDS �Lipids are another type of biomolecules that are hydrophobic. �Lipids are important becausethey are major forms of energy storage. �They are structural components of cell membranes and serve as hormones and vitamins.
�Fats are as important as carbohydrates and other biomolecules. �Fats are a significant part of our diet. �They are present in meat , fish, poultry, and dairy products. �If food intake is not large enough to supply the energy needed by the body, the body begins to burn stored fat.
�A fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long chain of saturated or unsaturated carbon atoms connected to each other. �Saturated fatty acids contain only single bonds. �Unsaturated fatty acids contain at least one double bond.
Saturated Fatty Acid Formula Common Name Melting Point C CH₃ (CH₂)₁₀ COOH Lauric acid 43. 2 CH₃ (CH₂)₁₂ COOH Myristic acid 54. 4 CH₃ (CH₂)₁₄ COOH Palmitic acid 62. 9 CH₃ (CH₂)₁₆ COOH Stearic acid 69. 6 Arachidic acid 75. 5 CH₃ (CH₂)₁₈ COOH
Unsaturated Fatty Acid Formula Common Name Melting Point C CH₃ (CH₂)₅ CH = CH (CH₂)₇ COOH Palmitoleic acid CH₃ (CH₂) ₇ CH = CH (CH₂) ₇ COOH Oleic acid 13 CH₃ (CH₂)₄ CH = CHCH₂ CH= CH(CH₂) ₇ COOH Linoleic acid -5 CH₃ CH₂ CH = CHCH₂ CH = CH(CH₂) ₇ COOH Linolenic acid -11 CH₃ (CH₂) ₄ (CH=CHCH₂) ₄ (CH₂) ₂ COOH Arachidonic acid - o. 1 -49
�The lipid soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. �These vitamins are found in foods that are rich in fats and oil. �Once vitamins are absorbed by the body, they are storeed in liver and fatty tissues when not in use.
VITAMIN A �Vitamin A comes in two forms: retinol and beta carotene. �Vitamin A is important for good eyesight, development of bones and teeth, formation of skin and mucous membranes and cancer prevention.
VITAMIN D �Vitamin D has two forms namely: �Vitamin D₂ (Ergocalciferol) �Vitamin D₃ (Cholecalciferol)
VITAMIN E �Vitamin E has different forms. �Vitamin E can be obtained from green leafy vegetables, avocado, nuts and vegetable oil. �It is an antioxidant that protects the cells from free radicals that can cause cancer.
VITAMIN K �Vitamin K also exists in different forms. �Vitamin K₁ is found naturally in green plants. �Vitamin K is important in the production of bloodclotting proteins that help the blood to clot.
PROTEINS �Proteins are biomolecules that are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other elements. �Amino Acids are the building blocks of all proteins which are made up of carboxyl group, an amine group and a side chain. �The side chain may be straight, branched or ring forms.
�There are 10 essential amino acids that are needed by the body namely : �Arginine �Histidine �Isoleucine �Lysine �Methionine �Phenylalanine �Threonine �Tryptophan �Valine
�They are called essentials amino acids because the body cannot produce these types of amino acids. �Your body needs 20 amino acids ( 10 essentials and 10 nonessentials) �Nonessentials amino acids are equally important as the essential amino acids.
� The 10 nonessentials amino acids are: �Alanine �Asparagine �Aspartic Acid �Cysteine �Glutamic Acid �Glutamine �Glycine �Proline �Serine �Tyrosine
NUCLEIC ACIDS �Nucleic Acid are called informational molecules because they store the genetic codes needed for all cellular functions. �The 2 types of nucleic acids: �DNA �RNA
�Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing base, sugar, phosphate and five-carbon sugar. �The nitrogen-containing base are: �Adenine �Guanine �Cytosine �Thymine �Uracil