Beyond the pair integrating aspect and actionality in

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"Beyond the pair: integrating aspect and actionality in a model of Russian verbal derivation"

"Beyond the pair: integrating aspect and actionality in a model of Russian verbal derivation" Laura A. Janda UNC-Chapel Hill [email protected] edu, www. unc. edu/~lajanda

The Russian aspectual system: • All verbs and all forms of all verbs are

The Russian aspectual system: • All verbs and all forms of all verbs are marked for either Perfective or Imperfective aspect – (Exception: a small set of biaspectual verbs lacks overt marking, but aspect is always disambiguated in context) – Perfective and Imperfective will be marked with superscript “p” and “i” – For example: писатьi ‘write’, написатьp ‘write’, пописатьp ‘write for a while’, переписатьp ‘rewrite’, переписыватьi ‘rewrite’, etc.

Problem: • Model of aspectual “pairs” has a long tradition: – Vinogradov 1938, Šaxmatov

Problem: • Model of aspectual “pairs” has a long tradition: – Vinogradov 1938, Šaxmatov 1941, Bondarko 1983, Čertkova 1996, Zaliznjak & Šmelev 2000, Timberlake 2004 • Suspicions that aspectual relationships involve more complex clusters have arisen: – Isačenko 1960, Bertinetto & Delfitto 2000, Tatevosov 2002, Janda forthcoming

Solution: • There is a single implicational hierarchy that predicts all and only the

Solution: • There is a single implicational hierarchy that predicts all and only the aspectual clusters that exist in Russian. – This result is based on a empirical study of a multiply stratified sample of 283 verb clusters (including over 2000 verbs).

Overview: • Three metaphors govern the Russian aspectual system, based on: properties of matter,

Overview: • Three metaphors govern the Russian aspectual system, based on: properties of matter, motion, granularity • These metaphors motivate the derivation of four different types of perfective verbs • These metaphors interact to motivate the structure of aspectual clusters of Russian verbs

The three metaphors • Solid vs. Substance => Perfective vs. Imperfective • Travel vs.

The three metaphors • Solid vs. Substance => Perfective vs. Imperfective • Travel vs. Motion => Construal of Completability • Granular vs. Fluid => Construal of Singularizability

Travel vs. Motion One can travel to a destination – or – One can

Travel vs. Motion One can travel to a destination – or – One can move without a destination This distinction is grammaticalized in Russian motion verbs: идтиi ‘walk (somewhere)’ vs. ходитьi ‘walk (around, back and forth)’ This can be likened to the Completability of an action

Completability: Писатель пишетi книгу. ‘The writer is writing a book. ’ Профессор работаетi в

Completability: Писатель пишетi книгу. ‘The writer is writing a book. ’ Профессор работаетi в университете. ‘The professor is working at the university. ’ Note that Completability is a scale involving various kinds of construal.

Completability: • Many verbs are Ambiguous: – Completable • Писатель пишетi книгу ‘A writer

Completability: • Many verbs are Ambiguous: – Completable • Писатель пишетi книгу ‘A writer is writing a book’ – Non-Completable • Писатель пишетi книги ‘A writer writes books’ • Some verbs are Non-Completable: стонатьi ‘moan’ – But some can be Completable if specialized • работатьi ‘work’ > переработатьp ‘revise’ • Few verbs are unambiguously Completable: • крепнутьi > окрепнутьp ‘get stronger’

What Completability means for aspectual derivation: • Only verbs that can be construed as

What Completability means for aspectual derivation: • Only verbs that can be construed as Completable have Natural Perfectives – писатьi ‘write’ > написатьp ‘write’, крепнутьi ‘get stronger’ > окрепнутьp ‘get stronger’ • Only verbs that can be construed as Non-Completable have Complex Act Perfectives – писатьi ‘write’> пописатьp ‘write a while’, стонатьi ‘moan’> постонатьp ‘moan a while’, работатьi ‘work’> поработатьp ‘work a while’ • Verbs that can be Completable if specialized have Specialized Perfectives – писатьi ‘write’> переписатьp ‘rewrite’, работатьi ‘work’ > переработатьp ‘revise’

Granular vs. Fluid: Substances can be: Particulate, like sand Continuous, like water This can

Granular vs. Fluid: Substances can be: Particulate, like sand Continuous, like water This can be likened to Singularizability of an action

Singularizability: Мальчик дулi на одуванчик. Профессор работалi в университете. ‘The boy was blowing on

Singularizability: Мальчик дулi на одуванчик. Профессор работалi в университете. ‘The boy was blowing on the ‘The professor was working dandelion. ’ at the university. ’ Мальчик дунулp на одуванчик. ‘The boy blew once on the dandelion. ’

What Singularizability means for aspectual derivation: • Only verbs that can be construed as

What Singularizability means for aspectual derivation: • Only verbs that can be construed as Non. Completable and have a Complex Act can also have a Single Act Perfective: • щипатьi ‘pinch/pluck’ + пощипатьp ‘pinch/pluck a while’ > щипнутьp ‘pinch/pluck once’ • дутьi ‘blow’ + подутьp ‘blow a while’ > дунутьp ‘blow once’ • скрипетьi ‘squeak’ + поскрипетьp ‘squeak a while’ > скрипнутьp ‘squeak once’ • работатьi ‘work’ + поработатьp ‘work a while’ > *работнутьp ‘work once’ [NB: Some are formed adhoc]

Summary thus far: • Two metaphors distinguish four different types of Perfectives: – Natural

Summary thus far: • Two metaphors distinguish four different types of Perfectives: – Natural Perfectives • писатьi ‘write’ > написатьp ‘write’ – Specialized Perfectives • работатьi ‘work’ > переработатьp ‘revise’ – Complex Act Perfectives • стонатьi ‘moan’> постонатьp ‘moan a while’ – Single Act Perfectives • дутьi ‘blow’ + подутьp ‘blow a while’ > дунутьp ‘blow once’

Definition: • An aspectual cluster is a group of verbs joined via transitive relationships

Definition: • An aspectual cluster is a group of verbs joined via transitive relationships on the basis of aspectual derivational morphology – All verbs in a cluster are aspectually related to a single lexical item • In addition to Imperfective Activity verbs, an aspectual cluster can include all four types of Perfective verbs: – Natural Perfective, Specialized Perfective, Complex Act, Single Act

Distribution of the four types of Perfectives: • Natural Perfective: – написатьp ‘write’, связатьp

Distribution of the four types of Perfectives: • Natural Perfective: – написатьp ‘write’, связатьp ‘tie’, о(б)щипатьp ‘pinch/pluck’, окрепнутьp ‘get stronger’ • Specialized Perfective: – переписатьp ‘rewrite’, развязатьp ‘untie’, переработатьp ‘revise’, вдутьp ‘blow in’, выщипатьp ‘pluck out’ • Complex Act: – пописатьp ‘write a while’, поработатьp ‘work a while’, подутьp ‘blow a while’, пощипатьp ‘pinch/pluck a while’, поскрипетьp ‘squeak a while’ • Single Act: – дунутьp ‘blow once’, щипнутьp ‘pinch/pluck once’, скрипнутьp ‘squeak once’

Distribution of the four types of Perfectives: • Natural Perfective: – написатьp ‘write’, связатьp

Distribution of the four types of Perfectives: • Natural Perfective: – написатьp ‘write’, связатьp ‘tie’, о(б)щипатьp ‘pinch/pluck’, окрепнутьp ‘get stronger’ • Specialized Perfective: – переписатьp ‘rewrite’, развязатьp ‘untie’, переработатьp ‘revise’, вдутьp ‘blow in’, выщипатьp ‘pluck out’ • Complex Act: – пописатьp ‘write a while’, поработатьp ‘work a while’, подутьp ‘blow a while’, пощипатьp ‘pinch/pluck a while’, поскрипетьp ‘squeak a while’ • Single Act: – дунутьp ‘blow once’, щипнутьp ‘pinch/pluck once’, скрипнутьp ‘squeak once’

Cluster components: • Five items (Imperfective Activity + four types of Perfectives) can compose

Cluster components: • Five items (Imperfective Activity + four types of Perfectives) can compose 31 different combinations, but only 12 cluster types are attested • The three metaphors motivate an Implicational Hierarchy that constrains the structure of aspectual clusters

The Implicational Hierarchy: Activity щипатьi ‘pinch/pluck’ > (Natural/Specialized Perfective) о(б)щипатьp ‘pinch/pluck’/выщипатьp ‘pluck out’ >

The Implicational Hierarchy: Activity щипатьi ‘pinch/pluck’ > (Natural/Specialized Perfective) о(б)щипатьp ‘pinch/pluck’/выщипатьp ‘pluck out’ > Complex Act пощипатьp ‘pinch/pluck a while’ > Single Act щипнутьp ‘pinch/pluck once’

Extant verb clusters • • Activity + Natural Perfective Activity + Specialized Perfective Activity

Extant verb clusters • • Activity + Natural Perfective Activity + Specialized Perfective Activity + Natural Perfective + Specialized Perfective To any of the above one can add either: …+ Complex Act + Single Act Total: 12 extant cluster types

What the hierarchy excludes: • 18 unattested cluster types • 1 cluster type that

What the hierarchy excludes: • 18 unattested cluster types • 1 cluster type that is rare, but known to exist: – Natural Perfective (perfectiva tantum) • рухнутьp ‘collapse’, уцелетьp ‘survive’ • morphologically complex, probably remnants of clusters that were historically larger

Distribution of extant cluster types: • Three cluster types account for over half the

Distribution of extant cluster types: • Three cluster types account for over half the verbs in the lexicon – Activity+Natural+Specialized+Complex Act • Like писатьi ‘write’ – Activity+Natural+Specialized • Like вязатьi ‘tie’ – Activity+Specialized+Complex Act • Like работатьi ‘work’ • Five cluster types follow, each representing less than 10% of verbs • Remaining cluster types are rare (2% or less)

Comparison with “pair” model: • Activity + Natural Perfective type accounts for only 6.

Comparison with “pair” model: • Activity + Natural Perfective type accounts for only 6. 4%, and is a semantically unusual group (can be continued after result is achieved): – Иван окреп. Потом он еще больше окреп. ‘Ivan got stronger. Then he got even stronger. ’ – Иван написал книгу. *Потом он еще больше написал книгу. ‘Ivan wrote a book. *Then he wrote the book even more. ’ • Most attested cluster structures have 3 -5 components • The three most common cluster structures have 3 or 4 components

Conclusions: • The cluster model gives a richer, more accurate account of aspectual relationships

Conclusions: • The cluster model gives a richer, more accurate account of aspectual relationships than the “pair” model. • Cluster structures are highly constrained and transparently motivated. • Both linguists and pedagogs should describe aspectual relationships in terms of clusters.