Best Management Practices for Application of Turf Pesticides

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Best Management Practices for Application of Turf Pesticides & Fertilizers and Yard. Scaping Gary

Best Management Practices for Application of Turf Pesticides & Fertilizers and Yard. Scaping Gary Fish Board of Pesticides Control 287 -2731 gary. [email protected] gov

Why BMPs n Inappropriate application practices discovered after heavy spring rains of 2005 n

Why BMPs n Inappropriate application practices discovered after heavy spring rains of 2005 n Water sampling results from USGS and FOCB n The Board wanted to start with BMPs instead of jumping into new regulations

Friends of Casco Bay Sampling n 2001 Sampling n n n 2002 Sampling n

Friends of Casco Bay Sampling n 2001 Sampling n n n 2002 Sampling n n n Found Diazinon in 4 of 11 samples (. 71 ppb) Found Excess Nitrogen & Phosphorous in all samples 2003 Sampling n n Found Diazinon in 1 of 3 samples (2. 6 ppb)** Found 2, 4 -D in all 3 samples (36. 4 ppb) Found Dicamba in 1 of 3 samples (3. 8 ppb) **Values in red Found MCPP in 2 of 3 samples (26 ppb) exceed ALC Found Excess Nitrogen & Phosphorous in all samples Found Dicamba in 3 of 10 samples (4. 1 ppb) Found Clopyralid in 1 of 10 samples (0. 91 ppb) Found Propiconazole in 2 of 10 samples (0. 075 ppb) 2005 Sampling n n Found 2, 4 -D in 2 of 5 samples (4. 62 ppb) Found MCPA in 2 of 5 samples (0. 45 ppb)

Aquatic Life Criteria n EPA criteria for nuisance algae growth n n n Nitrogen

Aquatic Life Criteria n EPA criteria for nuisance algae growth n n n Nitrogen - 250 ppb Phosphorous – 20 ppb EPA criteria for diazinon is 0. 17 ppb for fresh water & 0. 82 ppb for salt water Other criteria proposed by various sources for fresh water (from USGS Fact Sheet 097 -99) n n n 2, 4 -D – 4 ppb MCPA – 2. 6 ppb Carbaryl – 0. 02 ppb Dicamba – 10 ppb Triclopyr – 560 ppb Chlorpyrifos – 0. 001 ppb

USGS National Water Quality Assessment – 2006 Report n Sampled urban streams n n

USGS National Water Quality Assessment – 2006 Report n Sampled urban streams n n n Insecticides occurred more frequently in urban streams than they did in agricultural area streams Herbicides detected in 99% of Urban stream samples Phosphorous found at same levels as in agricultural streams n 70% of those samples exceeded the EPA level for causing excessive algal growth

The BMPs n Site Assessment n n Informed Product Choice n n n Pesticides

The BMPs n Site Assessment n n Informed Product Choice n n n Pesticides Fertilizers Operating Standards n n n Initial site visit Turf assessment prior to treatment Thorough periodic assessments Prior to application Application Customer/Neighbor Relations n n Notification Customer education www. maine. gov/agriculture/pesticides/turf_bmps/

Site Assessment n Initial site visit n n n Customer expectations Pest problems Site

Site Assessment n Initial site visit n n n Customer expectations Pest problems Site plan and measure Soil characteristics Slope and runoff Soil test Sensitive areas Grass species Intensity of use Sun exposure Record assessment

Site Assessment n Turf assessment prior to treatment n Soil conditions n n Compacted,

Site Assessment n Turf assessment prior to treatment n Soil conditions n n Compacted, eroded, frozen, shallow, saturated, exposed bedrock or ledge? Pest problems Turf health Watering n n Frequency Intensity

Site Assessment n Thorough periodic assessment n Annually n n Reassess the initial site

Site Assessment n Thorough periodic assessment n Annually n n Reassess the initial site visit criteria Customer expectations and desire for service (This is now required) Review management records Every 3 – 5 years n n Soil test Consider monitoring ground water for nitrates at golf courses or sod farms or other intensively managed areas

Informed Product Choice n Pesticides n n n n Read labels & MSDSs Choose

Informed Product Choice n Pesticides n n n n Read labels & MSDSs Choose least toxic, least persistent, lowest exposure Use the WIN-PST criteria Check bee warnings Choose selective products Do spot treatments Choose low drift and low volatility products Weed & Feed

WIN-PST n http: //www. thinkfirstspraylast. org/turf_bmps/index. htm

WIN-PST n http: //www. thinkfirstspraylast. org/turf_bmps/index. htm

Select slow release fertilizers n n n Look for Water Insoluble Nitrogen (WIN) GUARANTEED

Select slow release fertilizers n n n Look for Water Insoluble Nitrogen (WIN) GUARANTEED ANALYSIS Total Nitrogen (N). . . …. 8. 00% 1. 0 % Water Soluble Nitrogen 7. 5 % Water Insoluble Nitrogen Available Phosphate (P 205). . …. 1. 0 % Soluble Potash (K 20). . . . . … 1. 0 % Derived from corn gluten, steamed bone meal & sulfate of potash NON PLANT FOOD INGREDIENTS Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumulis, Bacillus megaterium, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Paenibacillus durum each @ 275, 000 CFU per gram of finished product

Informed Product Choice n Fertilizers n Choose slow- or timedrelease N (WIN – Water

Informed Product Choice n Fertilizers n Choose slow- or timedrelease N (WIN – Water insoluble nitrogen) n n Avoid ammonium nitrate or sulfate and calcium nitrate n n Apply at 1 pound/1000 square feet or less Do not apply quick release N above ½ pound/1000 sq. ft. Use P-Free fertilizer unless soil test indicates need or when establishing seed

Operating Standards n Prior to application n Check site for people & pets n

Operating Standards n Prior to application n Check site for people & pets n Sensitive individuals nearby n Toys, sandboxes, pet dishes present? n Open windows? n 24 -hour weather forecast n Record current conditions n Calibrate equipment frequently

Operating Standards n Application n n n Base applications on soil characteristics Never apply

Operating Standards n Application n n n Base applications on soil characteristics Never apply when there is standing water Never apply to saturated soils Never apply to frozen ground Never apply when temperature exceeds 85°F Follow label temperature requirements

Operating Standards n Application – continued n n n n Never apply until soil

Operating Standards n Application – continued n n n n Never apply until soil warms to 50 - 55°F at 3” soil depth Never apply between December 1 and April 1 (unless fungicide for snow mold) Consider forecasted rains Avoid application when wind is below 3 mph or above 10 mph Do not apply pesticides if rain or irrigation is imminent, unless specified by label Do not apply if moderate or heavy rain is imminent regardless of label statements Never apply to impervious surfaces

Operating Standards n Application – continued n n n n Never apply near areas

Operating Standards n Application – continued n n n n Never apply near areas prone to runoff, i. e. , culverts, drainageways or wells Never apply to bare ground unless establishing seed Cover seed to prevent erosion Clean up spills immediately Never leave materials on impervious surfaces Lightly water-in fertilizers When the label directs, assure that pesticides are watered in as directed

Operating Standards n Application – continued n n Fill spreader on hard surface Use

Operating Standards n Application – continued n n Fill spreader on hard surface Use a drop spreader near sensitive areas Leave an 25 -foot buffer of untreated vegetation near water bodies Manage pests with spot applications

Customer/Neighbor Relations n Notification n n Remind customer annually about right to request labels

Customer/Neighbor Relations n Notification n n Remind customer annually about right to request labels and MSDSs When requested, always provide labels and/or MSDSs When requested always notify customers and/or neighbors at least 24 hours prior to applications After application inform customers/neighbors about treatments n n Need for watering Re-entry period

Customer/Neighbor Relations n Customer Education n Customers must know when their expectations are too

Customer/Neighbor Relations n Customer Education n Customers must know when their expectations are too high and should know the limitations like: n n n n Soil depth & texture Soil p. H and nutrient imbalances Grass species limitations Proper mowing & watering Soil compaction & thatch depth Need for buffers around wells, water, etc. Low risk control options Slow-release & P-Free fertilizer options

25 -foot buffer zone to be required next to waters and wetlands n Applies

25 -foot buffer zone to be required next to waters and wetlands n Applies to all terrestrial “Broadcast” applications n n n Except stinging insect and arthropod vector control, and Man-made Ag wetlands, e. g. , Cranberry bog areas Variances may be granted if the Board approves and protections are reasonably equivalent

New Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations–U-Conn/Cornell n Nitrogen Standards n n n If the existing

New Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations–U-Conn/Cornell n Nitrogen Standards n n n If the existing lawn is acceptable, no need for fertilizer Do not apply before spring green-up and no later than September 15 th (NNE) or October 15 th (SNE) Apply no more than 1/2 to 1/3 of a pound of nitrogen in any 1 application Slow release formulations are preferable When a soil test indicates adequate P or K, use N only On lawns that are 10 years or older apply a maximum of 2 lbs N/1000 per season n Newer lawns may require 3 lbs N/1000 per season

New Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations - continued n n n n When seeding a

New Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations - continued n n n n When seeding a new lawn amend the soil to get organic matter up to 3% to 5% Mow high (3 inches) and return clippings Choose tall or fine fescues because they require less nutrients and water – Avoid KBG Maintain soil p. H levels between 5. 5 and 6. 5 Consider introduction of white clover or other low growing legumes to provide natural nitrogen Start testing soil for nitrates and base application rates on need (this is experimental right now) Avoid using combination fertilizer and pesticide products

New Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations - continued n Phosphorus Standards n n n If

New Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations - continued n Phosphorus Standards n n n If the existing lawn is acceptable, no need for fertilizer Soil test for P – do not guess Frank Rossi at Cornell says P is only needed on the poorest of soils Avoid P fertilizers on bare ground or low density lawns, unless seeding Use P-free next to water unless soil test shows very low phosphorus

New Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations - continued n n n Avoid application of P

New Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations - continued n n n Avoid application of P prior to heavy or moderate rains Maintain p. H between 5. 5 and 6. 5 Never apply to saturated or frozen ground Soil test annually for P if using organic fertilizer or composts Avoid combination fertilizer and pesticide products

Yard. Scaping… for a healthy Maine Gary Fish, Coordinator Maine Yard. Scaping Partnership (207)

Yard. Scaping… for a healthy Maine Gary Fish, Coordinator Maine Yard. Scaping Partnership (207) 287 -2731 gary. [email protected] gov

The Partnership is very diverse!

The Partnership is very diverse!

Yard. Scaping • A new paradigm? • Some call it “Sustainable Landscaping” or “Ecological

Yard. Scaping • A new paradigm? • Some call it “Sustainable Landscaping” or “Ecological Landscaping” • We want to keep it simple

Yard. Scaping Mission • To inspire Maine people to – create and maintain healthy

Yard. Scaping Mission • To inspire Maine people to – create and maintain healthy landscapes – through ecologically based practices that – minimize reliance on water, fertilizer and pesticides

Maine yard care pesticide use more common than perceived

Maine yard care pesticide use more common than perceived

The Ten-ets of Yard. Scaping • Use site appropriate, non-invasive plants • Right plant,

The Ten-ets of Yard. Scaping • Use site appropriate, non-invasive plants • Right plant, right place, right purpose • Use diversity of plants & grasses • Create wildlife habitats • Reduce lawn area • Use low input lawns & landscapes • Use vegetative buffers to protect surface waters • Reduce runoff • Reduce reliance on pesticides, fertilizers and water • Promote sensible pest management (IPM)

Use site appropriate, noninvasive plants • Native plants are often well adapted – but

Use site appropriate, noninvasive plants • Native plants are often well adapted – but not always – Fewer problems, less work, more rewards • Invasive plants are easy to grow but crowd out native vegetation – Our local forest habitats are changing rapidly

Right plant, right place, right purpose • Choose plants based on the area to

Right plant, right place, right purpose • Choose plants based on the area to be planted not just for their color • Select plants that thrive under existing conditions rather than trying to alter the conditions to meet the needs of a plant • Minimize disturbance of the existing landscape

Right plant, right place Beach plum – dry sunny site Partridgeberry – wet shady

Right plant, right place Beach plum – dry sunny site Partridgeberry – wet shady site Staghorn Sumac – large open dry bank

Use a diversity of plants & grasses • Less noticeable damage from pests and

Use a diversity of plants & grasses • Less noticeable damage from pests and disease • Incorporate many layers of plant types – Trees – Shrubs – Ground covers – Perennials, and – Lawns

Create wildlife habitats • Diversity and plant layers go hand in hand with habitat

Create wildlife habitats • Diversity and plant layers go hand in hand with habitat creation • Add nectar and fruit producing plants • Strive for continuous blooms • Add water, walls, feeders, woody debris

Reduce lawn area • Reduces – Water & air pollution – Water usage –

Reduce lawn area • Reduces – Water & air pollution – Water usage – Maintenance – Costs • Gives – More free time Mower exhaust = 40 small cars’ exhaust

Use low input plant varieties • No-mow fescue vs Kentucky bluegrass • Pagoda dogwood

Use low input plant varieties • No-mow fescue vs Kentucky bluegrass • Pagoda dogwood vs flowering cherry • River birch vs paper birch

Protect lakes & streams with buffers • Preserve existing landscape • Winding paths •

Protect lakes & streams with buffers • Preserve existing landscape • Winding paths • Don’t mow to lake’s edge • Pitch the rake

Reduce runoff • Reduce amount of pervious (hard) surfaces • Create rain gardens or

Reduce runoff • Reduce amount of pervious (hard) surfaces • Create rain gardens or install rain barrels • Direct water into vegetated areas • Irrigate properly and only when needed

Reduce reliance on pesticides, fertilizers and water • Grow plants that are resistant to

Reduce reliance on pesticides, fertilizers and water • Grow plants that are resistant to insects & diseases • Use plants that tolerate low fertility White Fir • Use drought resistant plants Sweet Fern

Use common sense pest management • Integrated pest management – Know your pest –

Use common sense pest management • Integrated pest management – Know your pest – Pick it, trap it or exclude it – Know the good bugs – Mow, prune or water – Use pesticides as last resort

Weed Control Approach (BASIC STRATEGY - dense, tall turf tends to reduce weed invasion)

Weed Control Approach (BASIC STRATEGY - dense, tall turf tends to reduce weed invasion) Seed is the best weed control! Mow high, 3 inches MINIMUM Promote root growth – fertilize in early fall Reduce wear and compaction - encourage foot traffic away from turf; core aerify twice per year and overseed at same time Overseed or slit-seed open areas ASAP! Spot treatment with herbicides only when necessary.

Are there alternatives? Corn gluten meal has demonstrated pre-emergent herbicide activity Rather expensive and

Are there alternatives? Corn gluten meal has demonstrated pre-emergent herbicide activity Rather expensive and a weak herbicide Most action - nutrient value from meal breakdown - added fertility thickens turf and reduces weed germination Weed flamers and spikes “Punto” Hot water foam and steamers Mostly used in cities where herbicides have been banned Punto

Choose the right grass varieties for Maine

Choose the right grass varieties for Maine

Insect tolerance Some Excellent Good Disease tolerance Some Good

Insect tolerance Some Excellent Good Disease tolerance Some Good

Plant or over-seed with low maintenance grass types • Fine Fescues 40 - 50%

Plant or over-seed with low maintenance grass types • Fine Fescues 40 - 50% – Creeping Red – Hard – Chewings • Tall Fescue Yard. Scaping Mix 40% Endophyte Enhanced Creeping Red Fescue 10% Southport Chewings Fescue 30% Endophyte Enhanced Perennial Ryegrass 20% Kenblue KBG • Common Kentucky Bluegrass • Endophyte enhanced perennial rye or fescues • Plant grass seed in late summer/early fall • Avoid sod

Low Maintenance Lawn Benefits – 2000 CMHC study of 30 residences • Residents with

Low Maintenance Lawn Benefits – 2000 CMHC study of 30 residences • Residents with lowmaintenance lawns spent – 50 per cent less time, – 85 per cent less money, and • used – 50 per cent less fuel, – 85 per cent less fertilizer, – 100 per cent less water and http: //www. cmhc-schl. gc. ca/en/burema/gesein/abhose_076. cfm – 100 per cent less pesticides per year

http: //131. 128. 91. 217/maynard_susplants/html_spl 2000/index. htm

http: //131. 128. 91. 217/maynard_susplants/html_spl 2000/index. htm

Other resources • http: //www. hort. uconn. edu/ipm/turf/htms/turfman. htm Guelph Turfgrass Institute & Environmental

Other resources • http: //www. hort. uconn. edu/ipm/turf/htms/turfman. htm Guelph Turfgrass Institute & Environmental Research Centre http: //www. uoguelph. ca/GTI/ http: //www. gardening. cornell. edu/lawn/almanac

Where to learn more http: //www. yardscaping. org

Where to learn more http: //www. yardscaping. org

Where to learn more http: //www. gotpests. org

Where to learn more http: //www. gotpests. org

Yard. Scaping… For a healthy Maine

Yard. Scaping… For a healthy Maine