Bellringer What are three building blocks of an argument? Explain each.
Kindergarten Reading • Who is the audience the author is writing for? • What is thesis? If put in a resolution, what does the author want us to do? • Change requires condemning the Status Quo (the way things are), what are the harms he claims? • After condemning SQ, an affirmative arguer must forward an alternate that is better. What alt does the author present?
Types of Claims: Effective Results For Different Kinds of Arguments
4 Major Types of Claims • Categories for claims helps us understand the purposes and special features of an argument. • We also differentiate between these TYPES of claims because it determines how we argue it/against it. • Claims of Fact • Claims of Definition • Claims of Value • Claims of Policy
Claims of Fact • A claim of fact posits that something is true or untrue. • Generally objective in nature (one is able to see empirical, or real world evidence of this) • A claim of fact states that something exists or that we ought to classify something in a particular way PROOF REQUIRED • reliable authority • recent data • accurate, typical data • clearly defined terms -no loaded language • a clear distinction between fact and inference.
EXAMPLES Claims of Fact • • • The Earth revolves around the Sun. The Defendant is guilty. The US was the first country to land on the moon. The US is heading into an economic recession. On Balance, the NSA does more harm than good.
Claims of Definition • Deal with meaning or interpretation. • Claims of this type attempt to place concepts in categories that provide some sort of perspective (X=Y where we all agree on X but may not agree on Y) • Definitions are RARELY neutral. Most of these categories have loaded connotations that can be either positive or negative. • PROOF REQUIRED • Reliable authorities and accepted sources • Well thought-out analogies
Examples Claims of Definition • “Capital punishment is murder” • “All war is unjust” • “Zygotes and embryos are human beings. ”
Claims of Value • Involve judgments, appraisals, or evaluations. • Related to taste or morals. Makes statements about the worth or something, it being good/bad. • "It is better to. . . " • "It is wrong to. . " • "…. Is MORE beautiful than. . " PROOF REQUIRED • Establishing standards of evaluation • note the priority of the value in this instance. • Establish the advantage (practical or moral) of your standards. • Use examples to clarify abstract values • Use credible authorities for support.
EXAMPLES Claims of Value • Private Schools are better than public schools. • Friendship should be prioritized over academics. • Freedom is more important than security. • Prisons should focus on rehabilitation more than punishment.
Claims of Policy • Agent + Action (This PROOF REQIRED : • Often has some sort of • • • person/entity SHOULD do this) organized, or procedural plan. Making proposed action clear need (justification) plan, (must be workable) benefit (advantages) consider opposition / counter arguments
EXAMPLES Claims of Policy • You should study for your chemistry test. • The West Ada School District should require school uniforms for all students. • The United States Federal Government should significantly decrease its economic ties to China.
Claims as Grounds • The evidence we offer to justify our claims are claims in themselves (more than likely claims of fact). • Depending upon whether or not our claims are accepted at face value, I may have to provide grounds for my grounds.
New Spar Debate Topic • Resolved: Campus carry will be allowed with a concealed carry permit at all public schools. • 10 minutes to confer on arguments. • • • 2 minute Affirmative Constructive 2 minute Negative Constructive 1 minute Affirmative Rebuttal 1 minute Negative Rebuttal : 30 second Aff Final Focus : 30 second Neg Final Focus
Spar Debate Mock 3 • Resolved: Campus carry will be allowed with a concealed carry permit at all public schools. • 10 minutes to confer on arguments. • • • 2 minute Affirmative Constructive 2 minute Negative Constructive 1 minute Affirmative Rebuttal 1 minute Negative Rebuttal 1 min Aff Final Focus 1 min Neg Final Focus