- Slides: 21
Bellringer (Please answer completely on your bellringer handout Sir Glaton Francis, a psychologist believed that greatness and intelligence ran in families and was passed down from generation to generation. He also believed that the wealthiest people were the most intelligent. What factors other than heredity might shape a person’s behavior? (Give at least 2 examples) What explanation other than heredity might explain why Galton found that greatness runs in the family? (Give 2 examples)
History or Psychology Notes Follow along on your handout These will go in your binder for binder check
Early Psychology-Phrenology ûFirst introduced in 1796 and was the latest advancement in neurology at the time ûNeurologists argued that the brain was a muscle ûThe parts of the brain you exercised most bulked up ûThe parts of the brain not in use remained small
Let’s Experiment ûUse your fingertips to feel the surface of your head. Pay close attention to the location of any bumps or indentations. ûOn the profile images provided, draw a (+) in sections where your scull has a little bump, and a (-) where it has an indentation.
Compare your skull with the phrenology map given. ØA bump would mean you have a little extra of a certain quality ØA indentation would mean you are slightly deficient. 1. What are your results? 2. Are they accurate? Why or why not? 3. Why could this type of approach to science and research be dangerous?
Origins ûEarly Greeks - decided that humans determined their own behavior (rather than the gods). û 1600’s - French philosopher, René Descartes reasoned that the mind controlled the body’s movements, sensations, and perceptions. û 1800’s/1900’s - other fields of science such as biologists, chemists, physicists and natural scientists are fine-tuning the scientific method of studying natural phenomena.
Historical Approaches ûStructuralism ûWilliam Wundt is credited with establishing Psychology as its own separate field ûAsked-> How does the mind work? û Used “introspection” to study how the mind worked ûIntrospection method of self-observation ûtrained participants reported their thoughts and Wundt tried to map out the basic structure of the thought process ûEx: Wundt's research assistants might describe an object such as an apple in terms of the basic perceptions it invoked "cold", "crisp", and "sweet”.
Historical Approaches ûInheritable Traits ûSir Francis Galton raised the issue of whether behavior is determined by heredity or environment. (Nature v. Nurture) ûHe encouraged “good” marriages to supply the world with talented offspring. ûHe developed the predecessors of modern personality tests and intelligence tests.
Historical Approaches ûFunctionalism ûWilliam James û“Father of Psychology” in the U. S. ûBelieved that activities of the mind- thinking, feeling, learning and remembering – served to help us survive as a species ûWorked to uncover how mental processes help humans/animals adapt to their environment.
Historical Approaches ûGestalt Psychology ûseveral German psychologists argued that perception is more than the sum of its parts ûex: a chair is not just a combination of legs and seat. . . It’s a chair û “Gestalt” is German for “whole pattern”
What do you see when you look at this image?
Note Break Free Association Circle ûIn a free association you will say the first thing you think about when hearing what another player says. ûAnything is valid, as long as it is not preconceived or inappropriate for the classroom. ûWith your shoulder and face partners, we will establish a rhythm, by tossing a fake flower. Once a rhythm is established, one player starts by “tossing” a word to his neighbor, who associates on the word and tosses another word to his neighbor.
Free Association Individual ûOn a piece of paper (without your name), write the first thing that comes to mind when I read a particular word. ûWe will switch papers at random, and try to interpret what the associations “mean. ” ûWhat, if anything, can you determine about the person whose list you are viewing? ûWhat are some difficulties in analyzing a whole personality based on so few responses?
Contemporary Approaches ûPsychoanalytic ûSigmund Freud (1856 -1939) ûUnconscious motivations influence our behavior. ûEx: How have negative childhood experiences affected the way I handle stressful situations? ûHe used “free association” and dream analysis to study unconscious processes.
Contemporary Approaches ûBehavioral Psychology ûIvan Pavlov (1849 -1936), John B. Watson (18781958), and B. F. Skinner (1904 -1990). ûEvents in the environment (rewards/punishments) influence our behavior ûEx: Can good study habits be learned?
Contemporary Approaches ûHumanistic Psychology û 1960’s Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Rollo May û Individual or self-directed choices influence our behavior. The environment and outside forces serve only as a background to our own internal personal growth. û Each person is unique and has a self concept and potential to develop. û Ex: Do I believe I can prepare for and pass this test?
Contemporary Approaches ûCognitive Psychology û 1950’s -Jean Piaget ûHow we process, store, and retrieve information influences our behavior. ûIncludes perceptions, memories, expectations ûEx: How does caffeine affect memory?
Contemporary Approaches ûBiological Psychology ûPsychobiologists study how the brain, nervous system, hormones, and genetics influence our behavior. ûRecent discoveries include the link between chemicals in the brain (neurotransmitters) and behavior.
Contemporary Approaches ûSociocultural Psychology ûEthnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status influence our behavior. ûEx: How do people of different genders and ethnicities interact with one another?
Your behavior chart: 1. Observe and keep careful notes of your behaviors on a particular day. 2. Make a chart listing each action such as “woke to the alarm clock’s ring, ” “ate breakfast, ” and “helped my brother get to the school bus” 3. Beside each behavior you have noted, list what caused the behavior. For example, “I woke up at 7: 00 AM because school starts at 8: 00 AM and I hate being late. 4. Next list the psychological approach that would best explain your behavior. For example, waking up to the alarm clock’s ring may fall under behaviorism or functionalism.
Exit Slip Which approach to psychology do you think is most effective in learning about behavior and solving problems? (Explain your answer. )