- Slides: 60
Bellringer Why Europeans search Todid cut the out the middle men whofor new to the East Indies wereroutes increasing prices (India)? A person who agreed to work for 7 years in America in What is anfor indentured servant? exchange a ticket across the Atlantic To increase a nation’s supply of What thesilver. goal of Mercantilism? goldisand
Bellringer Why Europeans search Todid cut the out the middle men whofor new to the East Indies wereroutes increasing prices (India)? The US has access to trade routes, and protection Explain thefishing benefits of the US to be from invasion located between two oceans. To increase a nation’s supply of What thesilver. goal of Mercantilism? goldisand
Bellringer 1) Jamestown was founded for profit, How did the Plymouth was. Jamestown founded forsettlers religious freedom differ from the Plymouth settlers 2) Jamestown(Pilgrims)? gentlemen were not willing to work like the Pilgrims were Southern because of Fertile Which of climate Colonialand America soil, region a humid long was best for seasons growing crops? Why? growing (New England, Middle or Southern) Tobacco What crop saved Jamestown?
How does Geography affect people’s lives?
The first Americans The first American settlers came from Asia and Africa by passing over the Bering Strait. This occurred thousands of years ago. These people became the first Native Americans
Native American values Native Americans developed traditional tribal living groups. These tribal groups used barter systems to exchange goods and services. Native American groups did not believe land was owned, but that it was there to be used for the general good. Native American groups: -Iroquois -Creek Cherokee
Europeans arrive Europeans were driven to the new world (Western Hemisphere) by the search for an alternative sea route to the Indies. Europeans valued the spices, silks and other goods from the Indies. However, middle men caused prices to soar. Soon Europeans had sailed south of Africa for a direct sea route. Some Europeans believed another sea route existed by sailing West. Spice trader Muslim merchant to Italy Italian Merchant to Europe Bought by European
European trade BEFORE America Europeans either had to pay huge sums to Muslim traders, or find a different trade route. Soon Europeans had developed better sea navigation techniques and set off down the African Coast, eventually finding the Cape of Good Hope.
Columbus The first European to establish long lasting trade between the East and West was Columbus found the Caribbean Islands, and began Spanish domination of the Western Hemisphere. Spanish Conquistadors quickly conquered most of Latin America (anything south of the United States)
Riches, Riches The Spanish quickly profited from their colonies in the New World. Shipments of gold, silver, and sugar cane brought great wealth to the Spanish. Soon the French and English began claiming areas of the New World.
European Plantations The goal of the Europeans was to make money from their colonies. The easiest way to do that was by growing valuable cash crops, such as sugar. As Europeans claimed the new lands, they set up large plantations, or large farms. This is also the start of Mercantilism- Economic policy to increase gold reserves for the nation by selling more than you buy
Mercantilism Europeans viewed the colonies as existing to create money for their nations. To achieve this goal nations exported more than they imported. Colonies sent cheap resources to Britain, who sent back expensive manufactured goods.
Maximizing profits To maximize profits European plantation owners began using indentured servants. An indentured servant agrees to work for 7 years in return for a ticket across the Atlantic.
More Labor Eventually the demand for cheap labor outgrew the supply of indentured servants. To make matters worse, the natives died quickly from disease and overwork. The Colonists soon turned to the use of African Slave labor. Especially in the Southern Colonies where the weather promoted long growing seasons.
Review After Columbus’ “discovery” of the Americas the Triangle trade developed, permanently connecting Europe, Africa and the Americas. Along the Middle Passage Africans, meant to be slaves, travelled to be sold in markets and at auction houses.
American Slavery In the Western Hemisphere Slavery started in the Caribbean Islands. Slaves toiled in harsh conditions producing sugar, pineapples and even tobacco. In the 13 Colonies, slaves were treated better, and even encouraged to reproduce. Unfortunately, these children were born as slaves.
British Colonies In Europe land was scarce, so owning property meant wealth. America had acres of available land, and soon British entrepreneurs planned to create colonies. The first permanent colony was Jamestown in 1607. First a Charter, or permission from the King is needed. Then the first group of settlers travelled to the American coast. Jamestown was founded in Virginia near Chesapeake Bay.
Jamestown problems Jamestown struggled for many years. There were three main problems: 1) Nearby swamps bred disease 2) Settlers were rich and not used to doing physical labor 3) Poor leadership During the winter of 1609 to 1610 Jamestown went through a “Starving Time”. Many citizens even turned to cannibalism.
The Starving Time Question 3: What did Jamestown survivors call the winter of 1609 -1610? Question 4: Which of the following do archaeologists consider evidence of cannibalism at Jamestown?
Jamestown and the King In 1624 King James revoke the Jamestown Charter and turned it into a Royal colony. He appointed a Royal governor to ensure their survival. The colony made a legislature, named the House of Burgesses, to make decisions for the general welfare of the colony Legislature: Lawmaking political body
The House of Burgesses (rich gentlemen) was the first time English Colonists attempted self government. This legislature will eventually influence other colonial experiments with self rule.
Saving Jamestown was saved from doom by the introduction of Tobacco. This cash crop brought revenue into the colony, saving it from disaster. In 1616 a mere 2, 500 pounds was grown and shipped back to England. By 1618 over 50, 000 pounds were shipped home. (Mercantilism at work)
Plantations As profits soared from tobacco, more colonists began establishing plantations. These plantations, or large farms, need many workers. To help entice more colonists the king offered 50 acres per newcomer. Another source of cheap labor were the indentured servants, or people who agreed to work for 7 years in exchange for passage across the Atlantic. Eventually even these sources of cheap labor failed to produce enough workers. When this happened, the Americans began partaking in the slave trade to gain cheap labor.
Conflict As the plantations grew more settlers came to the new world. Soon Jamestown in Virginia was accompanied by the colony in Maryland. As English colonists continued to take clear more land for farms and villages, clashes with the Natives became more frequent. Many colonists feared the natives, but were determined to continue growing their colonies in the new world.
Bacon’s Rebellion In 1676 a group of colonists lead by Nathaniel Bacon raised an army to fight the natives. These farmers were angry that the Colonial governments and the rich plantation owners were not taking care of their needs.
Bacon’s Rebellion The Governor of Virginia raised an army to stop Bacon and his men. Bacon’s rebellion quickly turned around attacked Jamestown and the rich planters. They burned the settlement and seized control. The Rebellion crumbled with Bacon’s sudden death.
Importance 1) Colonists were frustrated that only the wealthy planters (plantation owners) got government action 2) Poor colonists were willing to fight against such government 3) Social class conflicts were growing.
British Colonies The 13 English colonies were divided into three main sections; the New England Colonies, the Middle Colonies and the Sothern Colonies. New England Colonies Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut New Hampshire Middle Colonies New York New Jersey Delaware Pennsylvania Southern Colonies Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia Maryland
New England Colonies Most New England colonies were founded for religious freedom. The first New England group was the Pilgrims, who arrived in Plymouth upon the Mayflower in 1620. The Pilgrims were persecuted in England wanted to live in peace.
Mayflower Compact Upon landing, conflicts between the Pilgrims nearly broke apart the colony. To save it the Pilgrims wrote the Mayflower Compact. In this document, every settler promised to obey the laws set forth by the colony government. This is another example of the colonists practicing self government, as laws were guided by the affairs in the colony, not England.
First Thanksgiving The Pilgrims are best known for hosting the first Thanksgiving Feast. This feast would not have been possible if it was not for Squanto, a Native American who befriended the Pilgrims and showed them how to plant corn and other crops. Unlike the early settlers of Jamestown, the Pilgrims were willing and able to work
Massachusetts Nearly 20, 000 settlers followed the pilgrims example, and settled into the surrounding area. This became the Massachusetts Bay colony. The New Colonists did not believe in religious tolerance and established a strictly Puritan society. Puritan societies are very “pure” and outlaw drugs, alcohol, and other secular pleasures. Despite being persecuted themselves, the Puritans did not allow religious freedom
Salem Witch Trials In 1692 several girls in the Salem area began having strange dreams, body contortions and other ailments. The local doctors diagnoses bewitchment. Soon other girls were showing the same signs. The girls began accusing local women of being witches. Quickly neighbor began accusing neighbor, overwhelming the local court system. To make matters worse, one of the women confessed, and provided names to the court of other witches. In total 20 men and women were killed.
Native Conflict As Massachusetts flourished, more New England Colonies were founded. New Hampshire was founded in 1623. Rhode Island, the first with religious tolerance was founded in 1636, along with Connecticut. These colonies further encroached on the land held by the Native Americans leading to frequent conflict and deaths.
King Phillip’s war King Phillip was actually an Indian named Metacom. He united the Natives to drive out the English from the New England colonies. He led his warriors in destroying 112 English towns, killing 600 settlers. The English fought back and killed 4, 000 Natives. After this war the English dominated New England.
Middle Colonies- New York New Amsterdam was settled by the Dutch in 1625 at the mouth of the Hudson river and named New Amsterdam. New York had a wide variety of ethnic groups and allowed religious tolerance. The settlement even had the first Synagogue in America. The settlement was very prosperous, and the Hudson River allowed settlers to travel and trade far north.
New Amsterdam New York King Charles II of Britain was very jealous of the successful New Amsterdam colony and made a move to claim it for his own. He claimed the region in the name of his brother, the Duke of York. King Charles then sent 4 ships and hundreds of soldiers to seize New Amsterdam. Soon the British renamed it New York for the Duke. However, the British still had to contend with the Native American tribes
Southern Colonies The Southern colonies benefitted from a long growing season and humid climate. However, they lacked a work force and soon began bringing in African slaves to work the plantation fields. These slaves were viewed solely as property.
Cheap raw materials to England expensive manufactured goods to colonies
English Mercantilism To ensure profits the British required the Colonists to trade with only England. The colonists could sell raw materials and resources to England alone. After the English produce these materials into finished products, they were sent back to sell to. Colonists the colonists. dislike Mercantilism because it limits trade Not only could the colonists only sell to the British, and they were forbidden to purchase goods from any other nation as well. In this way Britain was prevents them from guaranteeing the Colonists would make money for Great Britain. manufacturing their own goods!!
Salutary Neglect The 13 Colonies had much freedom to rule themselves. England largely ignored the colonies as long as they were making money. England prized their colonies because they supplied England with cheap raw materials. The English would then make finished goods, which were bought by the colonists. Therefore, England made a lot of money by exporting more than importing. This economic system is known as…. Salutary Neglectpolitically ignoring the colonies as long as profits were made
Self Government The early colonies participated in several forms of self rule under Salutary Neglect: 1) House of Burgesses- Jamestown Legislature 2) Mayflower Compact- Pilgrims made laws and promised to obey them
Colonial Economies The size of the American Colonies allows for a range of geographic features and climates. Each group of colonies specialized in their own economic systems. Regardless of location, however, all colonies were forced to practice mercantilism with the British. Trade was only through the host country and the balance of trade always favored Britain.
Southern Colonies The Southern colonies are located in a warm and humid climate, with long growing seasons. As such the economy in the south was agriculturally based. To provide enough labor, the Southern colonies relied on African slaves. In some places the slaves made up 40% of the population. The South had few cities, merchants or factories.
Middle Colonies The middle colonies were reliant on both agriculture and a healthy commercial trade. Middle colonies had both plantations and large cities full of merchants and craftspeople.
New England Colonies New England had few cities, but was populated with many self-sufficient farms and towns. The New Englanders specialized in long distance trade over the Triangle Trade routes. Most New Englanders made a self-sufficient living by growing crops in the rocky soil during the short summer growing season
American Colonial Life in America was based on location, wealth and race. Gentry- rich plantation owners or merchants. Wore White wigs/ powder Artisans- created trade goods and trained apprentices Printers- circulated news Farmers/ fishers Indentured Servants- work 7 years for passage across Atlantic African Americans- Mostly slaves, but even freed Africans were at the bottom of society
African Americans Africans counted for 1 of every 5 people in the American Colonies. They were found throughout the colonies, but most were taken to the Southern Colonies as slaves. In S. Carolina and Georgia slaves grew rice and indigo. They made up the majority of the population which lead to harsher punishments for fear of them revolting. In Virginia and Maryland the slaves made up a large minority of the population, but came directly from Africa to grow tobacco. African Americans were encouraged to reproduce to create more laborers.
American Colonial Life The goal of life in America was self –sufficiency. The American colonists had to take care of themselves in case the supply ships never arrived. Unfortunately, the colonists were forbidden from producing most of their own goods due to Mercantilism. Colonists had to wait for many finished goods from Europe.
New England Scholars The religious groups which settled the New England region believed in education. As such public schools were required in towns with a population greater than 50. These educated New Englanders often became merchants, profiting from trade with Britain.
Review In the Colonial Era, developments such as the New England town meetings and the establishment of the Virginia House of Burgesses represented 1. Colonial attempts to build a strong national government 2. Efforts by the British to strengthen their control over the colonies 3. Steps in the growth of representative democracy 4. Early social reform movements
Review The British system of Mercantilism was opposed by many American colonists because it 1. Placed quotas on immigration 2. Discouraged the export of raw materials to England 3. Placed restrictions on trading 4. Encouraged colonial manufacturing
Review The Mayflower Compact is important to the concept of a democratic society because it represents 1. An effort by the colonists to use force to resist the King 2. A clear step toward self-government 3. An early attempt to establish universal suffrage 4. An attempt by the colonists to establish freedom of religion
Review In its economic relationship with its North American colonies, Great Britain followed principles of 18 th century mercantilism by 1. Outlawing the African slave trade 2. Limiting the colonies’ trade with other nations 3. Encouraging the development of manufacturing in the colonies 4. Establishing laws against business monopolies
Review In which area did good harbors, abundant forests, rocky soil and a short growing season most influence the colonial economy? 1. Southern colonies 2. Middle Atlantic region 3. Northwest Territory 4. New England Colonies
Draw the Triangle Trade
French colonies The French claimed most of the area from the mouth of the Mississippi river North through the Ohio River Valley. Unlike the British, the French did not create long lasting colonies. Instead, they built forts to trade with the Native Americans (Furs were popular) The French did not clear land to build permanent housing or raise families, and the Native Americans respected that.