Bellringer l Take out your Analysis of the Articles assignment and a plain sheet of paper with your name, period and date on it.
Bell Ringer l Use your, “Understanding the Articles of Confederation” worksheet (not the reading) to answer the following questions: – 1. What were the Articles of Confederation? – 2. List the five main weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. – 3. Explain how the Articles of Confederation led to Shay’s Rebellion?
The Road to the Constitution
Failure of the “Articles of Confederation” By 1787, most realized that the “Articles of Confederation” provided for a weak and ineffective system of government. l Under the Articles, the thirteen states operated as a “confederal” government system – whereas, the delegates wanted to create a “federal” system with a strong central government. l
Return to Philadelphia Because there were problems with the Articles of Confederation delegates were sent to Philadelphia to fix it in 1787. l 55 delegates from 12 states met to determine the future of the Government. l Rhode Island did not attend because they opposed the idea of a stronger central government. l
America’s “Best and Brightest” The men that attended the Convention are now called our framers because they set up the framework of our government l Who were they? l – 8 of the delegates had signed the “Declaration of Independence” – 7 of the delegates had been governors. – 41 of the delegates had served in the “Continental Congress”
George Washington l George Washington was selected as the unanimous choice to preside (be the president) over the convention. l No one in the new “u”nited States was more respected than he
Benjamin Franklin l Benjamin Franklin was the oldest member of the convention at 81 years old. l His wisdom and advice was invaluable to the members.
At the meeting, it was decided that the Articles of Confederation would be discarded. They realized that the government under the A of C was just too weak and that they would need a completely new document.
At the Convention (meeting), there were problems from the start……………. . Right away, disagreements arose about how the government would be structured.
The Two Plans for a Legislature
“The Virginia Plan” Proposed by Edmund Randolph / James Madison
“The Virginia Plan” Created a “ 3 branch” government (Legislative, Executive, & Judicial) l Created a two house bicameral legislature based on POPULATION! l Larger states were in favor of this! l (Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, & New York) l Smaller states protested because they would lose power due to their populations.
“The New Jersey Plan” Proposed by William Paterson
“The New Jersey Plan” Created a “ 3 branch” government (Legislative, Executive, & Judicial) l Called for a one house legislature (unicameral). l This plan called for equal representation -Each state had ONE vote! l Smaller states liked this plan! (New l Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland) l This was opposed by larger states who would only have as much power as smaller states despite having larger populations!
Compare & Contrast Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan
“Compromise” l. A way to settle disagreements between two or more groups is a compromise.
The “Great Compromise” l “The Great Compromise” was proposed by Roger Sherman of Connecticut. – Also called the “Connecticut Compromise”. l This created a 3 branch gov’t – with a two house legislature– bicameral legislature.
The “Great Compromise” Created the “Senate” l Each state had two (2) votes, both equal. l Pleased the smaller states (put them on equal footing with larger states in this house). l Created the “House of Representatives”. l Each state’s voting status was based on population. l Pleased the larger states (gave them more power in this house). l
Question of Counting Slaves? l Southern states wanted to count their slave populations (nearly 550, 000) for representation purposes – the Northern states disagreed The “ 3/5 th Compromise” settled the issue. l It was agreed to count each slave as 3/5 ths of a person for representation AND taxation purposes. l
“Slave Trade Compromise” Northern states wanted the U. S. Government to regulate (oversee) trade between both states AND foreign nations. l Southern states feared this would impact their exports of rice, cotton, & tobacco. l It was agreed that slavery would be left alone for 20 years in terms of commerce and trade. They would revisit the issue in 1808. l Was this really a fix? ? l
“How to Elect the President? ” Some delegates wanted Congress to choose the president. Why? l Others felt that the people should elect him. l They decided each state legislature would choose their electors, known as the electoral college, who would elect the President and Vice President. l We still use the Electoral College today, but now, voters choose who the electors will vote for. l
Ratifying the “U. S. Constitution” l The remaining 42 delegates gathered for the final time on September 17, 1787. l They had finished their task, and now the Constitution would become law if 9 out of the 13 states would ratify it at their ratifying conventions. (did Rhode Island matter? ? ? )
Debate Breaks Out: “Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists” Each wrote a series of papers in support of their side!!!
“Federalists” l “Federalists” were supporters of the Constitution as it was written. l They believed in a strong central government and wanted the document ratified (approved) as it was written.
“Federalists” l In essays entitled “The Federalist Papers”, they argued that the U. S. could not survive without a strong federal government. l They were led by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay
“Anti-Federalists” l “Anti-Federalists” felt that it gave too much power to the national government and took too much power from the states. l They opposed the Constitution as it was written.
“Anti-Federalists” The Anti-Federalists also wrote papers and in the “Anti-Federalists Papers” they demanded that the new Constitution protect the basic individual rights of the people – they wanted a “bill of rights” added. l They were led by Patrick Henry l
“Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists” l The Federalist Papers made it clear that we needed a stronger government and the Anti-Federalist Papers made it clear that the rights of the people must be protected in a “Bill of Rights”.
“The U. S. Constitution” It was agreed that a Bill of Rights would be added l On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the 9 th state to ratify the Constitution. Why was that important? ? ? l – Rhode Island was the 13 th. l The 13 independent states became one nation, the “United States of America. ” For the first time it was written with a capital “U. ”
Video l Constitutional (10 Minutes) Convention Documentary
Bellringer l Analyze the quotes below. Identify whether or not each quote is a Federalist or an Anti-Federalist quote, and use evidence from the quote to explain why. 1. “If men were angels, no government would be necessary… You must first enable the government to control the governed. . ” (Hint: Checks & Balances) 2. “This Constitution is said to have beautiful features; but when I come to examine these features, Sir, they appear to me horribly frightful…Your President may easily become King…”
Bellringer l Analyze the quotes on the worksheet provided and identify whether or not each quote is Federalist or Antifederalist. Explain your reasoning below the quote and underline the section of the quote that matches your explanation.
Carousel Brainstorm l Throughout the room are the 6 objectives you will be assessed on next class. As a group, brainstorm and list as much content knowledge to assist in mastery of that particular objective. As you rotate, add on any significant ideas missing and correct any mistakes.