Bellringer: 12/16 n Take out your vocab and review them before the quiz. n Take out your phone or tablet to use for Kahoot review.
After the quiz: n Make the following table of content updates: – 80: Vocab Quiz: Unification and Nationalism – 81: Notes: Italian Unification – 82: Notes: German Unification – 83: Map Activity: Italian Unification – 84: Map Activity: German Unification
Agenda: 12/16 n 1. Bellringer (Vocab Review) n 2. Kahoot Quiz Practice n 3. Vocab Quiz: Unification and Nationalism n 4. Notes: Italian and German Unification n 5. Map Activities: German and Italian Unification
Homework: 12 -16 n BRING IN SIGNED MOVIE FORM FOR FRIDAY!
The Unification of Italy The great monument to the unification of Italy and the first king of Italy, Vittorio Emmanuele II
Setting the Stage: Italy in the Early 1800’s n. Italy was divided into numerous states and kingdoms n. People were loyal to local regions
Italy at the Congress of Vienna n. Metternich would not even consider uniting Italy
Divisions: How Was Italy Divided? n. Austria= Northern Italy n. Hapsburgs=Various Italian States n. French Bourbons = Naples and Sicily
Reasons for Unification: Why would Italy want to unify? n. Desire for economic growth n. American and French Revolutions— inspiration n. Nationalism/Pride
What happens in 1820 -1848? n Secret Patriotic Societies tried to get Austria forced out of Italy but Austria crushed each rebellion n Represents the beginning of the attempts at unifying Italy
Giuseppe Mazzini 1830’s n. Founded “Young Italy” n. Reminded people of the pride of the Roman Empire n. Goal – Constitute a one, free, independent republican Italy n. FAILED
Victor Emanuel n. Appointed Count Camillo Cavour as Prime Minister i 1852
Camilio di Cavour n. Prime Minister who helped unification through practical aspects –Army –Industry n. Believes in Realpolitik
Camilo di Cavour n 1855 – Sardinia, Britain & France fight Russia n 1858 – Cavour makes secret deal with Napoleon promising to protect them if Austria invaded n Cavour provoked Austria to invade so France would help annex Lombardy
Giuseppe Garibaldi n Founded the Red Shirts, a militia for unification. n Helped promote the Italian unification movement by working with Victor Emanuel
Emanuel and Garibaldi Unite Italy n Garibaldi won the southern states of Italy and gave them to Victor Emanuel, in 1861. n Italy was finally unified in 1870 when Venetia and then Rome and the Papal States were added. n 1861 – Victor Emanuel II was crowned the King of Italy – A Constitutional monarch
The great monument to the unification of Italy and the first king of Italy, Vittorio Emmanuele II, 1870.
Finishing Touches: Consequences of Italian Unification n King Victor Emmanuel moves capital to Rome n Continued problems between northern and southern Italy on the basis of economic and cultural differences – North- industrialized (more $$$) – South- agricultural based (poor)
German Nationalism The Rise of Prussia
Nationalism n Nationalists: people who believe that people of a single “nationality” should be one government n Goal of Nationalists? Create a NATIONSTATE – Bonds that create a nation-state? Nationality, Language, Culture, Religion, History, and Territory
Early 1800’s German speaking people lived in small states & Prussia & Austrian Hapsburg Empire
1806 -1812 Napoleon raided German-speaking lands and annexed land along the Rhine River for France, dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, organized a number of German states into the Rhine Confederation
1815 Congress of Vienna Germans called for a unified Germany but Austrian Prince Clemons von Metternich (oversaw the negotiations) said they would have to dismantle all the German governments from each state Created the German Confederation which was a weak alliance headed by Austria
1862 Otto von Bismarck Prussian Prime Minister who became the Chancellor transformed Germany from a loose confederation of separate states into a powerful empire.
King Wilhelm I Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck (1815 -1898) n Prime minister of Prussia 1862 -1890 n “The Iron Chancellor ” n “ The less people know about how laws and sausages are made, the better they’ll sleep at night”
Iron Chancellor Bismarck wanted to keep France isolated & build strong links with Austria & Prussia
Realpolitik Bismarck used theory of realpolitik to keep power – “Politics of reality” – Tough power politics, no room for idealism – Not an emperor THINK ABOUT: Do we use realpolitik today?
War Bismarck built the military in hopes of creating strong foreign policies n Bismarck forms an alliance with Austria and together they invade Denmark and divide the land n Brief fight – Three months n Denmark gives up Schleswig & Holstein
War Bismarck built the military in hopes of creating strong foreign policies n 1866 – Austro-Prussian War (Prussia made up an excuse to invade), lasted 7 weeks and Prussia took control of Austria n Also known as Seven Weeks War n Prussian advantages – Railroads (better transportation system) – Telegraphs (better communication) – Modern weaponry (better army)
War Bismarck built the military in hopes of creating strong foreign policies – 1870 – Franco-Prussian War – Napoleon III hoped to mask problems at home with a military defeat § Bismarck edited a telegram between King William I & a French ambassador seeming that William insulted Frenchman & Napoleon invaded but France was defeated in weeks
South German states & North German Confederation convinced William I of Prussia to take the title of Kaiser and called this the Second Reich
Bismarck writes a Constitution Two Legislative Houses Bundesrat = upper house, appointed by rulers of German States Reichstag = lower house, elected by universal male suffrage Bundesrat count veto the Reichstag so the power was still with the Emperor & Chancellor THINK ABOUT: What was the problem with the two houses?
Kaiser William II Succeeded grandfather (William I) 1890 – asked Bismarck to resign Created programs that provided social welfare Cheap transportation & electricity Public schools – obedience to emperor then reading, writing & mathematics Funding to continue to build the already strongest military
Maps! n Use the handout on Italian Unification to fill in the Italian map. The map is on the same handout. n Use the page number listed on the German unification map worksheet to fill in the map.