BELARUSIAN STATE UNIVERSITY OF INFORMATICS AND RADIOELECTRONICS Student Aleksandr Mazura Group 543201 Minsk 2016
“Nano” What is Nano? A lot of people think that “nano” means modern and cutting edge. But actually “nano” means tiny, unseen for human and technology dealing with “nano” is a nanotechnology. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter. For instance, a sheet of newspaper is about 100, 000 nanometers thick.
Nanotechnology There’re some definitions of a nanotechnology: • • • “Nanotechnology is the art an science of manipulating matter at the nanoscale” “Nanotechnology is the study of small microscopic things” “Nanotechnology is the science of future” It’s no doubt that there’re a huge variety of nanotechnology applications: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Medicine Electronics Food Space Better Air Quality Cleaner Water And so on
Nanotechnology in medicine • Nanotechnology is already being used as the basis for new, more effective drug delivery systems. Moreover, the National Cancer Institute has created the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer to breakthroughs in terms of detecting, diagnosing, and treating various forms of cancer. • Nanotechnology is already moving from being used in passive structures to active structures, through more targeted drug therapies or “smart drugs. ”
Nanotechnology in medicine The ability to design and build inexpensive microscopic robots opens the road to producing fleets of trillions of medical nanorobots that could be introduced into the human body to cure specific diseases by performing cellular and molecular surgery, repair specific injuries, or monitor and patrol the body to guard against disease and to reverse the ravages of aging.
Do you know how it started? Richard Feynman The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (Cal. Tech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules.
Nan 0 factories Nanofactory is a proposed system in which nanomachines would combine reactive molecules via mechanosynthesis to build larger atomically precise parts.
To build a nanofactory, you need to start with a working fabricator, a nanoscale device that can combine individual molecules into useful shapes. Products made by a nanofactory will be assembled from nanoblocks, which will be fabricated within the nanofactory.
Nanomanufacturing • There are two basic approaches to nanomanufacturing, either topdown or bottom-up. Top-down fabrication reduces large pieces of materials all the way down to the nanoscale. The bottom-up approach to nanomanufacturing creates products by building them up from atomic- and molecular-scale components, which can be time-consuming. Scientists are exploring the concept of placing certain molecular-scale components together that will spontaneously “selfassemble, ” from the bottom up into ordered structures.
Nanoassembler • • • There’re 2 major ways to define what is a nanoassembler. On the one hand, a molecular one, as defined by K. Eric Drexler, is a "proposed device able to guide chemical reactions by positioning reactive molecules with atomic precision". Actually, it is a device that can take one molecule and connect it to another. A molecular assembler is a kind of molecular machine programmed by human. However, the term "molecular assembler" usually refers to theoretical human-made devices. If we know the instruction how to control nanoassemblers, we will make real and functioning nanofactory. On the other hand, a nanoassembler is a miniature sample of a common conveyor at the factory. But operating principle is the same.
Nanosystem When you look at the world on a nano scale, surfaces that feel smooth are actually uneven. Particles can collect, become embedded in the troughs and over time breakdown the surface. Imagine that you can make a nontoxic layer which repells water, dirt and bacteria. This is a nanosystem technology. The nanosystem can be applied to almost any surface: stone, wood, metal, glass, textiles, windscreens and etc.
The samples of application of nanotechnology
Application of a Nanosystem
Precautions It's no doubt that there’re some precautions: • Nanoweapon system(Bio. Weapon) • “Gray goo problem” Perhaps the earliest-recognized and best-known danger of molecular manufacturing is the risk that self-replicating nanorobots capable of functioning autonomously in the natural environment could quickly convert that natural environment (“biomass”) into replicas of themselves (“nanomass”) on a global basis, a scenario often referred to as the “gray goo problem” Any research into molecular manufacturing should be blocked because this technology might be used to build systems that could cause extraordinary damage. The kinds of concerns that nanoweapons systems might create have been discussed elsewhere, in both the nonfictional and fictional literature.
3 -D printer VS a nanofactory VS If we tell about nanotechnologies, we also should mention 3 -D printer. When you use it you are restricted with the material and size. But when you use nanofactory you can make whatever you want and give it certain qualities such as taste, color, smell and so on. The operation of 3 -D printer is slower than “nano” one. You are not limited. And when the time comes nanofactories will replace 3 -D printers.
Conclusion So, in conclusion, we say that nanotechnologies will make technical revolution as well as technical revolution of the 19 th century, help us to create a huge verity of necessary things for us and build society with no social and political problems. Definitely, it’s hard to hold a nanotechnology action in our country because it needs a lot of money. If we had more money or a good sponsor I think that it would be possible to start creation and planning nanomaterials. A new period is coming – the epoch of nanotechnologies.