Begrepet Disruptive Technology Grnderskolen Erling MaartmannMoe Clayton M

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Begrepet ”Disruptive Technology” Gründerskolen Erling Maartmann-Moe

Begrepet ”Disruptive Technology” Gründerskolen Erling Maartmann-Moe

Clayton M. Christensen Professor Harvard Business School The Innovator’s dilemma: ”When new technologies cause

Clayton M. Christensen Professor Harvard Business School The Innovator’s dilemma: ”When new technologies cause great firms to fail” (1997) ”Meeting the Challence of Disruptive Change” (HBR 2000) Hva skjer med ledende industrier når ny teknologi endrer konkurransen? Omfattende analyse med eksempler fra IT, stålindustri, medisin etc. 2004: The Innovator’s solution – Creating and sustaining successful growth

The Innovator’s Dilemma The Innovator’s Solution Seeing What’s Next © 2006 Innosight LLC 3

The Innovator’s Dilemma The Innovator’s Solution Seeing What’s Next © 2006 Innosight LLC 3

What is innovation? The act of introducing something new. A new idea, method or

What is innovation? The act of introducing something new. A new idea, method or device. ~ American Heritage Dictionary ~ Merriam-Webster Change that creates a new dimension of performance. The successful exploitation of new ideas. ~ Dept of Trade and ~ Peter Drucker Industry, UK Online Innovation is something different that has impact The often unspoken goal of innovation is to solve a problem © 2006 Innosight LLC 4

What innovation is not n Common misperceptions about innovation: Innovation is all about brand

What innovation is not n Common misperceptions about innovation: Innovation is all about brand new technology Innovation is what inventors do Innovation only concerns products Innovation is important only when it results in a huge, breakthrough business n The reality: Innovation happens every day, in large and small ways, and takes many forms Innovation on any scale can help a company meet its growth objective © 2006 Innosight LLC 5

Innovation comes in many forms New product or service New business model Enabling technology

Innovation comes in many forms New product or service New business model Enabling technology Six Sigma Packaging Branding/ Marketing Internal process

Utgangspunkt for analyse Ledende aktør - sterk i sitt marked Profesjonelle prosesser, sterk kultur

Utgangspunkt for analyse Ledende aktør - sterk i sitt marked Profesjonelle prosesser, sterk kultur Tuning, ”tinkering” Hovedmarked eroderes av ny teknologi. . men nye markeder ikke store nok til å erstatte bortfall av inntekter, selv om rask vekst Organisasjonen ikke ”skrudd for” å håndtere små, nye markeder

Ledende bedrifter overlever ikke teknologisk endring De ser endringen komme, men klarer ikke å

Ledende bedrifter overlever ikke teknologisk endring De ser endringen komme, men klarer ikke å håndtere den på en god måte Ikke èn av de ledende bedriftene innen minimaskiner klarte å beholde ledelsen da PCen vant fram n n n DEC Norsk Data Sperry Prime Wang Nixdorf

Mangler ikke dyktighet. . . Most big companies have talented managers and specialists, strong

Mangler ikke dyktighet. . . Most big companies have talented managers and specialists, strong product portfoilios, firstrate technological know-how, and deep pockets. What managers lack is the habit of thinking about their organisations capabilities as carefully as they think about individual people’s capabilities.

. . . men Forstår ikke typen endring. . . og forsøker å håndtere

. . . men Forstår ikke typen endring. . . og forsøker å håndtere dem innen rammen av eksisterende organisasjon og prosesser

The Innovator’s Dilemma To typer innovasjon: Sustaining innovations n n Make products better for

The Innovator’s Dilemma To typer innovasjon: Sustaining innovations n n Make products better for mainstream customer Existing value network Disruptive innovations n n n Cheaper, simpler, smaller, fringe market Create entirely new markets Potential to change entire market Etablerte selskaper flinke på de første, har problemer med de siste Utfordring for de etablerte, mulighet for gründere!

Sustaining innovations Adresserer neste generasjons behov for eksisterende avanserte kunder Raskere, mer nøyaktige, billigere

Sustaining innovations Adresserer neste generasjons behov for eksisterende avanserte kunder Raskere, mer nøyaktige, billigere produktprosesser Biler

Disruptive Innovations Nytt produkt eller tjeneste, ofte dårligere enn eksisterende teknologi ved introduksjonen! Digital

Disruptive Innovations Nytt produkt eller tjeneste, ofte dårligere enn eksisterende teknologi ved introduksjonen! Digital Video n TV-produksjon Desktop publishing n Typografer PC n Digital Equipment Corporation FINN n Annonsemarkedet Insulin n n Lilly: Humulin Novo: Insulin-penn

Product Performance demanded at the high end of the market Disruptive technological innovation ing

Product Performance demanded at the high end of the market Disruptive technological innovation ing n i ta s u to s es e du logi s res chno g o te Pr ing n i ta s u to s es e du logi s s e chno r g te Pro Performance demanded at the low end of the market

Decades of disruptive innovation What connects these innovations? … start with “good enough” performance

Decades of disruptive innovation What connects these innovations? … start with “good enough” performance along traditional dimensions 1870 1950 … new benefits such as simplicity, convenience or low prices … appeal to “overshot” customers or “nonconsumers” … often utilize “low cost” or “start small” business models craigs list 1960 … take advantage of competitive weaknesses and blind spots today © 2006 Innosight LLC 15

Vanskelig å ta stilling Ikke alle nye teknologier vinner fram n n Minitel Videotelefoni

Vanskelig å ta stilling Ikke alle nye teknologier vinner fram n n Minitel Videotelefoni Hvordan vurdere et (foreløpig) ikkeeksisterende marked? Vil nye eller etablerte aktører ta fordel? n n ”First mover advantage” ? Kompletterende/konkurrerende Timing: Når er det riktig å gå inn?

Disruptive vanskelig for etablerte ”When new technologies cause great firms to fail” Vanskelig å

Disruptive vanskelig for etablerte ”When new technologies cause great firms to fail” Vanskelig å bygge rutiner for å håndtere slik innovasjon ”Lytte til marekdet” gir feil informasjon For mye overhead til å betjene små markeder De minst profitable kundene ønsker den nye teknologien, dvs. ikke mer profitt, men lavere marginer Må tørre å konkurrere med seg selv

Strategivalg for etablerte aktører

Strategivalg for etablerte aktører

or s er ing um um s s on ons ion c - c

or s er ing um um s s on ons ion c - c s on on- cca N N o Performance Different Performance Measure Two types of disruption g Brin n o i at nov into an n I g inin roducts kets a t s Su rp mar bette blished esta on rupti s i ers D nd stom el E u c w d d Lo ve o r er-se usiness m v o s b es Addr wer-cost o l with Time tion p u r t t Dis onsump e k r c -Ma on. New gainst n a pete m o C Time

Non-consumers are the ideal target Major Established market Electronics Markets: Performance Tabletop radios, floor-standing

Non-consumers are the ideal target Major Established market Electronics Markets: Performance Tabletop radios, floor-standing televisions, computers, telecomm. equipment, etc. Path taken by established vacuum tube manufacturers Portable TVs Pocket radios Hearing Aids Time Disruptive innovation: transistors vs. vacuum tubes

Typiske utviklingsfaser for disruptive innovasjoner 1. Oppfinnelse og teknologiutvikling ofte gjort i etablert firma

Typiske utviklingsfaser for disruptive innovasjoner 1. Oppfinnelse og teknologiutvikling ofte gjort i etablert firma 2. Markedsavdeling sjekker mot ledende kunder som viser liten interesse 3. Etablert firma intensiverer innsats på eksisterende teknologi 4. Nye firmaer etableres og introduserer teknologi i markedet, og marked finnes ved prøving og feiling 5. Nye aktører beveger seg up-market 6. Etablerte kaster seg motvillig på det nye for å forsvare kundebasen sin

Putting the disruptive pattern to work: Principles for pursuing new growth ü ü ü

Putting the disruptive pattern to work: Principles for pursuing new growth ü ü ü ü Identify the right “job to be done” Prioritize important, unsatisfied jobs Determine what can be “good enough” Seek different ways to get the job done Follow an emergent strategy Dig deep for assumptions Start simple, cheap and fast This checklist will help you successfully innovate to create new growth, develop effective internal processes and sustain the established business © 2006 Innosight LLC 22

Putting the principles in practice Generate and prioritize ideas Shape solutions Pilot & Commercialize

Putting the principles in practice Generate and prioritize ideas Shape solutions Pilot & Commercialize ü Identify the right “job to be done” ü Prioritize important, unsatisfied jobs ü Determine what can be “good enough” ü Seek different ways to get the job done ü Follow an emergent strategy ü Start simple, cheap and fast ü Dig deep for assumptions and risks © 2006 Innosight LLC 23

Find the ‘job to be done’ Quarter inch drill Quarter inch hole Solution Problem

Find the ‘job to be done’ Quarter inch drill Quarter inch hole Solution Problem Demographics Circumstances What? Why? © 2006 Innosight LLC 24

Sample questions to ask to discover jobs n What is the problem you are

Sample questions to ask to discover jobs n What is the problem you are facing? n Why do you care about solving it? n How frequently do you encounter this problem? n What is the process you use to solve that problem? n What alternatives do you consider when going through this process? n Why do you select the option you select? n What do you like about the option? n What don’t you like? n What frustrates you when you are trying to solve this problem? Useful for customers and consumers © 2006 Innosight LLC 25

Describing a job to be done Job statement Customer/ Consumer wants to achieve result/solve

Describing a job to be done Job statement Customer/ Consumer wants to achieve result/solve problem within circumstances Examples: • Business manager/executive: Help me increase the productivity of my business within one year • Working mother: Minimize the amount of time I have to spend on housework so I can spend more time with my family • Teenager: Help me look ‘cool’ to my friends when I arrive at school © 2006 Innosight LLC 26

Prioritize important, unsatisfied jobs Important + Unsatisfied = Opportunity © 2006 Innosight LLC 27

Prioritize important, unsatisfied jobs Important + Unsatisfied = Opportunity © 2006 Innosight LLC 27

Remember that quality is relative In order to get this… Customer is willing to

Remember that quality is relative In order to get this… Customer is willing to give this up. . . Picture quality Memories Customization and service Convenience, low cost What is “good enough”? © 2006 Innosight LLC 28

Overshooting: You can be too good Do we need to be better here? Call

Overshooting: You can be too good Do we need to be better here? Call quality Pin drop Can you hear me now? Reliability 99. 999% 80% Power Survives a blizzard… … doesn’t Convenience The home Anywhere © 2006 Innosight LLC 29

Find creative ways to test assumptions Keep it simple, keep it cheap • •

Find creative ways to test assumptions Keep it simple, keep it cheap • • • Create a rapid, “good enough” prototype Talk to/observe customers and consumers Talk to internal resources Look to your history Google the idea Talk to experts in the field Conduct a focus group Scan Internet customer boards Perform secondary research Identify early milestones Launch in a test market Research patents A prototype is anything that helps communicate the idea: e. g. mock-ups, models, simulations, role playing, experiences. Prototyping early and often will save loads of time and effort. The goal is to get fast, insightful customer or end user feedback. © 2006 Innosight LLC 30

The ability to see opportunity depends on where you sit “The ‘telephone’ has too

The ability to see opportunity depends on where you sit “The ‘telephone’ has too many short-comings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us. ” — Western Union internal memo, 1876 Alexander Graham Bell

The innovation path is not always clear “In the early 1980 s AT&T asked

The innovation path is not always clear “In the early 1980 s AT&T asked Mc. Kinsey to estimate how many cellular phones would be in use in the world at the turn of the century. The consultancy … concluded that the total market would be about 900, 000. At the time this persuaded AT&T to pull out of the market. ” — The Economist, 1999

Getting new growth right is hard Trap 1: Failure to allocate resources “I don’t

Getting new growth right is hard Trap 1: Failure to allocate resources “I don’t really like hard disks--they’re not Sony technology. As an engineer, they’re not interesting. ” “There is no reason why anyone would want a personal computer in their home. ” Trap 2: Cram efforts into established models Kodak DCS-100 (1990): $30, 000 “All the news that's fit to pixel. ”