BEFORE PHOTOGRAPHY Photography was not a bastard left

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BEFORE PHOTOGRAPHY Photography was not a bastard left by science on the doorstep of

BEFORE PHOTOGRAPHY Photography was not a bastard left by science on the doorstep of art, but a legitimate child of the Western pictorial tradition. Peter Galassi

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE “The ultimate origins of photography – both technical and aesthetic – lie

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE “The ultimate origins of photography – both technical and aesthetic – lie in the fifteenth-century invention of linear perspective. ”

Pablo Picasso, Guitar with Sheet Music and Wine Glass, papier collé with drawing, 1912

Pablo Picasso, Guitar with Sheet Music and Wine Glass, papier collé with drawing, 1912 Modern art famously breaks the “laws” of optical perspective that held in Western art for 5 centuries: response to photography?

Non-Western and Pre-Renaissance European Perspectival Systems Perspective as a Symbolic Form – Irwin Panofsky

Non-Western and Pre-Renaissance European Perspectival Systems Perspective as a Symbolic Form – Irwin Panofsky Hesire, 2723 BCE. In ancient Egyptian perspective the primary value was that the entire body of the (here a servant) who would attend the deceased I n the afterlife is needed. “Half” eyes or foreshortened limbs (as representedin optical perspective) would not be functional in the afterlife.

Ancient Egyptian tomb painting: A painting at Abu Simbel shows Ramses II beating war

Ancient Egyptian tomb painting: A painting at Abu Simbel shows Ramses II beating war captives. Ramses’ exaggerated size has symbolic meaning signifying his god-like power and heroic feats.

Tomb painting of the botanical garden of Nebamun, with artificial fish pond, New Kingdom,

Tomb painting of the botanical garden of Nebamun, with artificial fish pond, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1400 BCE Conceptual rather than optical perspective displays each object with equal visibility and detail.

Ma Yuan, Landscape in Moonlight, ca. 1200 CE Chinese hanging scroll, ink, and color

Ma Yuan, Landscape in Moonlight, ca. 1200 CE Chinese hanging scroll, ink, and color on silk.

Anonymous, The Battles of Hogen and Heiji, Edo period, screen, 17 th century Japan

Anonymous, The Battles of Hogen and Heiji, Edo period, screen, 17 th century Japan

Anonymous, The Persian Prince Humay meets the Chinese Princess Humayun in her garden, c.

Anonymous, The Persian Prince Humay meets the Chinese Princess Humayun in her garden, c. 1430 -40, tempera on parchment.

Anonymous, Christ as Ruler of the Universe, the Virgin, and Child, and Saints, ca.

Anonymous, Christ as Ruler of the Universe, the Virgin, and Child, and Saints, ca. 1190, mosaic, Cathedral of Monreale, Sicily.

Anonymous, Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne, Italy, ca. 1280, tempera on wood

Anonymous, Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne, Italy, ca. 1280, tempera on wood

Giotto di Bondone, Frescoes, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy, 1305 -06

Giotto di Bondone, Frescoes, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy, 1305 -06

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Good Government, ca. 1340, fresco. Palazzo Publico, Siena.

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Good Government, ca. 1340, fresco. Palazzo Publico, Siena.

Analysis of perspective of Lorenzetti’s Birth of the Virgin. Pietro Lorenzetti, Birth of the

Analysis of perspective of Lorenzetti’s Birth of the Virgin. Pietro Lorenzetti, Birth of the Virgin, 1342, tempera on wood panel.

Masaccio, Trinity (and right, scheme of perspective) 1425 -28, fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence:

Masaccio, Trinity (and right, scheme of perspective) 1425 -28, fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence: considered first use of scientific perspective Masters of Illusion

Leon Battista Alberti published On Painting in 1435, dedicated to Brunelleschi, describing laws of

Leon Battista Alberti published On Painting in 1435, dedicated to Brunelleschi, describing laws of perspective Drawing by Brunelleschi, The central nave of St. Lorenzo, Florence, Italy Masters of Illusion

PERSPECTIVE MACHINES

PERSPECTIVE MACHINES

Leonardo Da Vinci, Draughtsman Using a Transparent Plane to Draw an Armillary Sphere, 1510

Leonardo Da Vinci, Draughtsman Using a Transparent Plane to Draw an Armillary Sphere, 1510

Illustration of Leonardo’s perspective grid

Illustration of Leonardo’s perspective grid

Illustration from the book The Practice of Perspective, by Jean Dubreuil, 1642, showing an

Illustration from the book The Practice of Perspective, by Jean Dubreuil, 1642, showing an artist using a perspective glass

Albrecht Durer, Artist using a glass to take a portrait, 1525, woodcut.

Albrecht Durer, Artist using a glass to take a portrait, 1525, woodcut.

Albrecht Durer, The painter studying the laws of foreshortening, 1525, woodcut. Draughtsmen plotting points

Albrecht Durer, The painter studying the laws of foreshortening, 1525, woodcut. Draughtsmen plotting points for the drawing of a lute in foreshortening.

THE CAMERA OBSCURA

THE CAMERA OBSCURA

 • CAMERA OBSCURA DEVELOPMENTS • Camera = Latin for “room”. Obscura = Latin

• CAMERA OBSCURA DEVELOPMENTS • Camera = Latin for “room”. Obscura = Latin for “dark” • 5 th C. B. C. China References to pinholes in screens revealing an understanding of image formation translated as “collecting place”, “locked treasure room. ”

Light travels in a straight line and when some of the rays reflected from

Light travels in a straight line and when some of the rays reflected from a bright subject pass through a small hole in thin material they do not scatter but cross and reform as an upside down image on a flat surface held parallel to the hole.

Camera obscura room, 1752

Camera obscura room, 1752

 • Camera obscura room, 1754.

• Camera obscura room, 1754.

Alexandre Saverien, Tent, Room, and Book Camera Obscuras, 1753, engraving.

Alexandre Saverien, Tent, Room, and Book Camera Obscuras, 1753, engraving.

Portable Camera Obscuras, 1685

Portable Camera Obscuras, 1685

A reflex camera obscura.

A reflex camera obscura.

Camera obscura tent

Camera obscura tent

Peter Gelassi, Before Photography relies on two scientific principles : 1) A principle of

Peter Gelassi, Before Photography relies on two scientific principles : 1) A principle of optics on which the Camera Obscura is based 2) Principle of chemistry, that certain combinations of elements, especially silver halides, turn dark when exposed to light (rather than heat or exposure to air) was demonstrated in 1717 by Johann Heinrich Schulze, professor of anatomy at the University of Altdorf

Piero della Francesca. An Ideal Townscape, c. 1470. Panel, 23 ½” x 78 ¾”

Piero della Francesca. An Ideal Townscape, c. 1470. Panel, 23 ½” x 78 ¾” (59. 69 x 200. 01 cm). Palazzo Ducale, Urbino, Italy. Scientific single-point perspective How might this be a symbolic form?

Emanuel de Witte. Protestant Church, 1669. Oil on panel 17” x 13 ½” (43.

Emanuel de Witte. Protestant Church, 1669. Oil on panel 17” x 13 ½” (43. 18 x 34. 29 cm). Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Pieter Saenredam. The Grote Kerk, Haarlem, 1636 -37. Oil on panel, 23 ½” x

Pieter Saenredam. The Grote Kerk, Haarlem, 1636 -37. Oil on panel, 23 ½” x 32 ¼” (59. 5 x 81. 7 cm). The Trustees of the National Gallery, London.

Paolo Uccello. The Hunt in the Forest, c. 1460. Tempera on wood panel, 25

Paolo Uccello. The Hunt in the Forest, c. 1460. Tempera on wood panel, 25 ½” x 65” (64. 77 x 165. 1 cm). Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Edgar Degas. The Racing Field: Amateur Jockeys near a Carriage, c. 1877 -80. Oil

Edgar Degas. The Racing Field: Amateur Jockeys near a Carriage, c. 1877 -80. Oil on canvas, 26” x 31 ¾” (66. 04 x 80. 65 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris

Photographic Vision? How much did photography influence 19 th century painting? “A popular presumption

Photographic Vision? How much did photography influence 19 th century painting? “A popular presumption today would have it that photographs, and especially fast exposures after c. 1860, revealed a great deal that was new and unique: a revolutionary new world of odd perspectives and viewpoints, peculiar compositional croppings, and candid instantaneity. ” Kirk Varnadoe, “The Artifice of Candor” Edgar Degas, The Rehersal, 1879 de Witte, Protestant Church, 1669

Keep in mind: Thursday September 22, class meets at the California State Library 900

Keep in mind: Thursday September 22, class meets at the California State Library 900 N St. entrance at 7 pm. Gary Kurutz, Director of Special Collections, will present and discuss vintage photographs from the collection in the California History Room, Room 200 Bring notebook and pen

ART and PHOTOGRAPHY Gary Kurutz, Director of Special Collections California State Library P. O.

ART and PHOTOGRAPHY Gary Kurutz, Director of Special Collections California State Library P. O. Box 942837 Sacramento, CA 94237 -0001 We see examples of 19 th century photography such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, albumen prints by Eadweard Muybridge and Carleton Watkins, views of the San Francisco earthquake, of the gold rush, and many other works that the students otherwise would not be able to see anywhere. Gary does this entirely for free. I estimate that the time required for this service – retrieving the pictures from the vaults, setting up the displays for the class, lecturing, and putting everything away – to be a full day’s work. Please send a note of thanks to Gary for this service. His generosity and enthusiasm for the subject make this event the highlight of the semester for us.