Battery Basics Battery Safety No smoking sparks or

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Battery Basics

Battery Basics

Battery Safety • No smoking sparks or flame near a battery. This can ignite

Battery Safety • No smoking sparks or flame near a battery. This can ignite hydrogen gas from battery. • No jewelry should be worn when working around batteries. • Disconnect grounds when servicing the battery or electrical system when able.

Safety Cont. • Never charge a frozen battery. The rapid expansion of frozen electrolyte

Safety Cont. • Never charge a frozen battery. The rapid expansion of frozen electrolyte can cause battery explosions. • Charge batteries only in well ventilated areas to allow the dispersal of hydrogen gas.

Battery after explosion

Battery after explosion

Safety Cont. • Allow hot batteries to cool down before any service. Overheating can

Safety Cont. • Allow hot batteries to cool down before any service. Overheating can be caused by charging too rapidly or at too high a charge rate. • Before charging make sure the charge is off. Don’t plug the charger into the outlet with the leads attached to the charger.

Solid Acid

Solid Acid

Safety Cont. • Never lay tools on or near battery. Use a fender cover

Safety Cont. • Never lay tools on or near battery. Use a fender cover on top of the battery while working near the battery to prevent tools from contact posts. • Do not get battery acid on clothing. • Wash hands immediately after handling batteries.

Electrolyte • Mixture of sulfuric acid and distilled water • Poured into each cell

Electrolyte • Mixture of sulfuric acid and distilled water • Poured into each cell until plates are covered • Warning: electrolyte causes serious burns or blindness if it comes in contact with your skin or eyes!

Basic Battery

Basic Battery

 • Operate the starter, ignition, and fuel injection during cranking • Supply electrical

• Operate the starter, ignition, and fuel injection during cranking • Supply electrical power when the engine is not running • Supply electrical power when current demands exceed alternator output • Act as a capacitor (stabilize voltage) • Store energy for extended periods

Battery Ratings • Cold cranking amps (CCA) – Amps available at 0 F •

Battery Ratings • Cold cranking amps (CCA) – Amps available at 0 F • Cranking amps – Amps available at 32 F • Reserve capacity – Time in minutes before battery is discharged • BCI group – Size and post configuration

Ratings Decal

Ratings Decal

Example BCI Group LWH Polarity 24 10. 3, 6. 8, 8. 9 24 F

Example BCI Group LWH Polarity 24 10. 3, 6. 8, 8. 9 24 F 75 95 R 10. 3, 6. 8, 8. 9 9. 1, 7. 3 15. 6, 6. 9, 7. 5 L/H pos R/H pos Terminals Top SAE Side SAE Top SAE

Cold Cranking Amps Rating • Current the battery can deliver for 30 seconds at

Cold Cranking Amps Rating • Current the battery can deliver for 30 seconds at 0 ºF (-18 ºC) while maintaining terminal voltage of 7. 2 volts (1. 2 volts per cell) • Expressed as cold cranking amps (CCA) • Indicates ability to crank the engine at cold temperatures • Typical applications: – 305 CCA for small 4 -cylinder engine – 450 CCA for 8 -cylinder engine

Cranking Amps • • Abbreviated CA Cranking amps available at 32 ºF CA typically

Cranking Amps • • Abbreviated CA Cranking amps available at 32 ºF CA typically about 20% higher than CCA Don’t go by CA rating in cold climates

Ratings Decal 2

Ratings Decal 2

Battery Voltage • Open circuit cell voltage is 2. 1 volts • Cells are

Battery Voltage • Open circuit cell voltage is 2. 1 volts • Cells are connected in series • A 12 -volt battery has 6 cells and an open circuit voltage 12. 6 volts

Built-in Hydrometer

Built-in Hydrometer

 • As battery temperature drops, output is reduced – chemical process is slowed

• As battery temperature drops, output is reduced – chemical process is slowed – battery cannot produce as much current

Corrosion

Corrosion

Obvious Corrosion

Obvious Corrosion

Side Post – Less Obvious

Side Post – Less Obvious

Battery Cleaning

Battery Cleaning

Capacity Testing • Applies ½ CCA for 15 seconds • Battery must be at

Capacity Testing • Applies ½ CCA for 15 seconds • Battery must be at least 75% charged • Can be used to destroy good batteries

Conductance Testing • Midtronics tester • Passes a small amount of a/c through battery

Conductance Testing • Midtronics tester • Passes a small amount of a/c through battery • Quick and easy • Not 100% • Can also test starter and generator (sorta)

Results

Results

Sulfation Test • Charge at 30 -40 amps for three minutes • Check voltage

Sulfation Test • Charge at 30 -40 amps for three minutes • Check voltage with charger running • Should be less than 15. 5 V • More than 15. 5 V indicates plates not taking a charge

Factory AGM Batteries • Cannot be charged at a high rate • Used in

Factory AGM Batteries • Cannot be charged at a high rate • Used in HEV and EV • Not used to crank the engine

Replacement AGM • Requires special charging rates • Cannot be used to replace cranking

Replacement AGM • Requires special charging rates • Cannot be used to replace cranking batteries in many applications

Parasitic Draw • Key-off battery drain • Some is normal, about. 050 -. 075

Parasitic Draw • Key-off battery drain • Some is normal, about. 050 -. 075 A (50 – 70 m. A) • May be higher • Too much = discharged battery

Parasitic Testing

Parasitic Testing

Key-Off Memory • • Clock Radio presets Memory seats, mirrors, climate, steering…. Engine control

Key-Off Memory • • Clock Radio presets Memory seats, mirrors, climate, steering…. Engine control module – idle, fuel control…. Transmission control module – shift tables… Anti-theft system RKE SAS and more…

Parasitic Draw Testing Precautions • Leave battery connected if possible • Vehicle may require

Parasitic Draw Testing Precautions • Leave battery connected if possible • Vehicle may require an hour or more to shut modules off • Any disturbance (proximity of smart key) can cause vehicle to wake up • Read service info for specific vehicle

Parasitic Testing • Keep meter or test light connected • Remove one fuse at

Parasitic Testing • Keep meter or test light connected • Remove one fuse at a time and note draw • If draw decreases, problem is likely in circuit protected by that fuse • Following wiring diagram for the fuse to isolate components

Parasitic Draw by Voltage Drop • Measure the voltage drop at each fuse •

Parasitic Draw by Voltage Drop • Measure the voltage drop at each fuse • Refer to the voltage drop – draw table

Battery Cycling • Repeated charging and discharging • Deep cycling – going from a

Battery Cycling • Repeated charging and discharging • Deep cycling – going from a very low charge to full charge – can shorten service life

Battery Inspection and Tests • • OCV – should be 12. 6 or above

Battery Inspection and Tests • • OCV – should be 12. 6 or above Insure correct CCA Check corrosion/leakage/voltage loss Check hold down condition Conductance test Capacity Parasitic draw

Hydrometer

Hydrometer

Incorrect Fix

Incorrect Fix

Battery Leakage Test

Battery Leakage Test

Battery Cleaning Wash with baking soda and water, and do not let debris enter

Battery Cleaning Wash with baking soda and water, and do not let debris enter filler openings

GM-Style Hold Down

GM-Style Hold Down

Import Hold Down

Import Hold Down

Battery Terminal Test

Battery Terminal Test