Basic Framework of Normative Ethics
Normative Ethics n ‘Normative’ means something that ‘guides’ or ‘controls’ n Aims to discover what should be the moral standards that are supported by the best reasons
Normative Ethics in Management Deontological Theory Teleological Theory Ethical Egoism Utilitarian Distributive Principle Justice Altruism Kantianism Universalism
Teleological theory n n n Derived from Greek word ‘telos’ means end Determine ethics of an act by looking to the consequences of the decision (The Ends) Utilitarianism and Distributive Justice are based on teleological approach
Ethical Egoism n n n An action is good if it produces result to maximize person’s self-interest at the expense of others. It denies that a person should help others when the person will get nothing out of it. Enlightened egoism is enlightened self interest – considers the long range perspective of other or humanity on the whole.
Utilitarian Principle Consequentialism Universalism Utilitarian principle Maximalism Hedonism
Strengths & Weaknesses of Teleological theory n They provide a relatively precise and objective method for moral decision making n They are in accord with much of our ordinary moral reasoning; An action would provide some benefit or inflict harm. This is morally relevant reason for or against performing it. n Some moral reasoning are non-teleological in character
Deontological Theory n n n Derived from greek word ‘deon’ means duty This approach believes we have a duty not to do bad Bribery is wrong by its very nature regardless of the consequences It is non-consequential theory Determine the ethics of an act by looking at the process of the decision (The means) Kantianism is based on deontological approach
Deontology vs Utilitarianism Principle inherent in action Individuals themselves are Outside the action valuable in Criticized because it makes sacrifice, some people for sake of others According to deontologists Concerned with total amount utilitarian go wrong when they fix of happiness on happiness as the highest good. They point out that happiness cannot be the highest good for humans Theory asserts that there are some Right or wrong are actions that are always wrong, no dependent on consequences matter what consequences – vary with the circumstances
Kantianism- Immanuel Kant n n n For Bentham it is Happiness, for Kant it is goodwill An action is morally right only if the person performing it is motivated by a good will and vice-versa. A goodwill means action done for reasons of principle from a sense of duty, nothing else.
Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Details Explicit and direct appeal to consequences in determining right or wrong Motive for action Permit sacrifice of individuals or minorities to collective self interest Ethics of: Theory: Formulations on: Common good must have priority over every thing Kantianism Utilitarianism Absent yes Sole importance Incidental No Yes Duty Welfare Non Consequentialism (Deontological) Consequentialism Sense of Duty, Categorical imperative maxim Utility, Maximise happiness, Hedonism Yes No
Strengths of Deontological Theory n This theory makes more sense in cases where consequences seem to be irrelevant n It is the way they account for the role of motives in evaluating actions
n Weaknesses of Deontological Failure to providetheory a plausible account of how our moral obligations and resolve problems of moral conflict n Rules in Ross’s theory is plausible; No reason is provided in accepting these rule n Ross’s rules are open to ethnocentrism n There is no order of priority to guide in cases where they conflict
Virtue Ethics- Aristotle n It asks What kind of person should we be? n It does three things n n n It defines the concept of virtue It must offer some list of virtues It offers some justification of that list and explain how we define what are virtues and vices
Virtue Ethics n Emphasizes on role of individual traits n Virtue is defined as a character trait that manifests itself in habitual action n For Greeks virtue means Excellence n Virtue Ethics= Excellence of Human Character
Strengths n Help to resolve Ethical Dilemmas n It takes into account the importance of relationships.
Ethical Relativism There is no universal set of principles by which to judge morality n Each society has its rules and it is inappropriate to compare ethical rules of one society with that of another n Relativists thus rule out possibility of discussion across societies on ethical issues. n