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Basic Environmental Technology Water Supply, Waste Management, and Pollution Control SIXTH EDITION CHAPTER 14

Basic Environmental Technology Water Supply, Waste Management, and Pollution Control SIXTH EDITION CHAPTER 14 Noise Pollution and Control Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -1 The alternating high- and low-pressure regions in a sound wave can

FIGURE 14 -1 The alternating high- and low-pressure regions in a sound wave can be represented by a trigonometric sine curve. The peaks represent high-pressure regions, and the valleys represent low-pressure regions, above and below average atmospheric pressure. Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -2 Pure tones (a and b) can combine to form a wave

FIGURE 14 -2 Pure tones (a and b) can combine to form a wave pattern like (c); random noise is depicted in (d). Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -3 The decibel (d. B) scale is used to measure noise levels.

FIGURE 14 -3 The decibel (d. B) scale is used to measure noise levels. (Courtesy of Copyright © Bru el & Kjær. ) Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -4 A chart such as this may be used to simplify the

FIGURE 14 -4 A chart such as this may be used to simplify the addition of decibel values when combining two or more sound levels. The chart is entered on the horizontal axis with the numerical difference between the sound levels to be combined, and the corresponding number of d. B to be added to the larger of the two sound levels is read on the vertical axis. Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -5 Equal loudness contours, in phons. (Courtesy Lindosland. ) Basic Environmental Technology,

FIGURE 14 -5 Equal loudness contours, in phons. (Courtesy Lindosland. ) Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -6 (a) Typical handheld sound level meter. (Courtesy of David J. Green/Alamy.

FIGURE 14 -6 (a) Typical handheld sound level meter. (Courtesy of David J. Green/Alamy. ) (b) Typical measuring arrangement used for traffic noise surveys. Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -6 (continued) (a) Typical handheld sound level meter. (Courtesy of David J.

FIGURE 14 -6 (continued) (a) Typical handheld sound level meter. (Courtesy of David J. Green/Alamy. ) (b) Typical measuring arrangement used for traffic noise surveys. Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -7 Sound exposure levels are used to account for the time interval

FIGURE 14 -7 Sound exposure levels are used to account for the time interval of a noise event. (Courtesy of Harris Miller & Hanson Inc. , Burlington, MA. ) Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -8 Typical ranges of day–night environmental noise level. Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth

FIGURE 14 -8 Typical ranges of day–night environmental noise level. Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -9 Basic elements in noise control. Air provides a direct path for

FIGURE 14 -9 Basic elements in noise control. Air provides a direct path for noise transmission; solid materials and reverberations (reflections) provide indirect paths. Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

�TABLE 14 -1 Land-use and Outdoor Noise Levels� Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry

�TABLE 14 -1 Land-use and Outdoor Noise Levels� Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

�TABLE 14 -1 (continued) Land-use and Outdoor Noise Levels� Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition

�TABLE 14 -1 (continued) Land-use and Outdoor Noise Levels� Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -10 As a sound wave spreads out from a line source of

FIGURE 14 -10 As a sound wave spreads out from a line source of noise, its sound level decreases at about the rate of 3 d. BA for each doubling of the distance from the source. Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -11 Relative ranges of noise levels for some common types of heavy

FIGURE 14 -11 Relative ranges of noise levels for some common types of heavy construction machinery. (Courtesy of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. ) Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

FIGURE 14 -12 level. One way to reduce traffic noise in a city is

FIGURE 14 -12 level. One way to reduce traffic noise in a city is to build sections of the roadway in a cut below street Basic Environmental Technology, Sixth Edition Jerry A. Nathanson | Richard A. Schneider Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved