Basic Energy Science and the Office of Energy

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Basic Energy Science and the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy David Garman

Basic Energy Science and the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy David Garman Assistant Secretary, EERE

World Primary Energy Supply by Source, 1850 -1997

World Primary Energy Supply by Source, 1850 -1997

U. S. 1998 Energy-Linked Emissions as Percentage of Total Emissions

U. S. 1998 Energy-Linked Emissions as Percentage of Total Emissions

Projections of Energy Use

Projections of Energy Use

The Innovation Pipeline Research Development Demonstration Deployment End Users

The Innovation Pipeline Research Development Demonstration Deployment End Users

The Innovation Pipeline Government RD&D Support Information Market, Policy, and Regulatory analysis Pilot Projects

The Innovation Pipeline Government RD&D Support Information Market, Policy, and Regulatory analysis Pilot Projects Demonstration Manufacturers Integrators R&D Distributors End User Incubators Investors Information Investors Training Education Financial Institutions Financial Inst.

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Regional Offices Field Office Assistant Secretary David

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Regional Offices Field Office Assistant Secretary David Garman FEMP DAS Beth Shearer FY 01: $27. 6 M Building Technology DAS Mark Ginsberg Industrial Technology Transport. Technology DAS Denise Swink • Residential Building • Vision Industries. Integration • Agriculture • Commercial Building. • Aluminum Integration • Chemicals • Equipment & Materials • Forest Products • Glass • Community Energy • Metal Casting • Energy Star • Mining • State Energy • Petroleum • Weatherization • Steel • Enabling Technologies • Financial Assistance FY 01 R&D: $104. 5 M • Technology Assistance FY 01: $295. 1 M FY 01: $148. 6 M DAS Tom Gross • Biofuels • Hybrid Systems • Advanced Engines • Fuel Cells • Electric Vehicle R&D • Materials • Heavy Vehicle Systems • Fuels Utilization • Technology Assistance FY 01: $301. 9 M Power Technology DAS Bob Dixon • Biopower • Distributed Energy • Geothermal • HTS • Hydrogen • Hydropower • Solar Energy • Buildings • Concentrating SP • Photovoltaics • Wind Energy • International Programs FY 01: $355. 9 M

Residential and Commercial Building Energy Use (34. 7 Quads, 1999)

Residential and Commercial Building Energy Use (34. 7 Quads, 1999)

Science In the Buildings Sector • Advanced Lighting • LEDs, OLEDs, multiphoton phosphors =>

Science In the Buildings Sector • Advanced Lighting • LEDs, OLEDs, multiphoton phosphors => Materials science/device physics • • Windows • Spectrally selective coatings, electrochromics => Materials science Water Heaters • UV-, temperature-, and pressure-resistant polymers => Materials science Materials Science

Science In the Buildings Sector • Materials Science – Heterostructure semiconductor interfaces, Electrically conducting

Science In the Buildings Sector • Materials Science – Heterostructure semiconductor interfaces, Electrically conducting polymers; Quantum-dot nanoclusters, etc. => LEDs and Organic LEDs – advanced lighting

Industrial Energy Use (35 Quads, 1999)

Industrial Energy Use (35 Quads, 1999)

Science in the Industrial Sector • Efficient, high temperature separations – High temperature membranes,

Science in the Industrial Sector • Efficient, high temperature separations – High temperature membranes, reactive membranes, filters => Materials Science – Separation mechanisms in multicomponent systems => Separation science • Improved process control – Sensors => high operating temperatures, sensitivities => Materials Science • Chemical, petroleum refining operations – Heterogeneous catalysis/surface chemistry; homogeneous catalysis/metalorganic chemistry; separation science; materials properties/synthesis; diagnostics • Boilers, Furnaces, gasifiers – Efficiency, emissions, gas cleanup => Combustion science; chemistry • Industrial process flows, heat transfer, etc. – Multiphase flows, heat transfer, etc. => Computational fluid dynamics. • Metal castings – Alloys => alloy chemistries, properties, processing => Materials Science – Rapid, non-destructive evaluation of alloy chemistry/properties => Diagnostics Materials Science, Combustion, Computation, Separations

Transport Energy Use (26 Quads, 1999, 96. 7% petroleum)

Transport Energy Use (26 Quads, 1999, 96. 7% petroleum)

Science in the Transport Sector • Fuel Cells – Electrocatalysis, ionic transport in polymer

Science in the Transport Sector • Fuel Cells – Electrocatalysis, ionic transport in polymer electrolytes, fuel processing catalysis • Engines – Real-time, high sensitivity multispecies measurements => Diagnostics. – Soot formation and evolution => Chemistry – Low speed flows; turbulence; multiphase flows => CFD • Aerodynamic drag – Low speed flow; turbulence => Computational Fluid Dynamics • Frames – Composite materials => Materials Science • Batteries – Electrochemistry CFD, Combustion, Electrochemistry, Materials Science

Bioenergy Total Consumption = 96 Quads Biomass = 2. 9 Quads

Bioenergy Total Consumption = 96 Quads Biomass = 2. 9 Quads

USES Biorefinery: Fuels: Ethanol Renewable Diesel Methanol Hydrogen Electricity Heat Biomass Feedstock – Trees

USES Biorefinery: Fuels: Ethanol Renewable Diesel Methanol Hydrogen Electricity Heat Biomass Feedstock – Trees –Forest Residues –Grasses – Agricultural Crops – Agricultural Residues – Animal Wastes – Municipal Solid Waste Conversion Processes -Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation -Enzymatic Fermentation -Gas/liquid Fermentation -Thermochemical Processes - Gasification/Pyrolysis - Combustion - Co-firing Products – Plastics – Foams – Solvents – Coatings – Chemical Intermediates – Phenolics – Adhesives – Fatty acids – Acetic Acid – Carbon black – Paints – Dyes, Pigments, and Ink – Detergents – Etc.

Science in Bioenergy & Bioproducts • Feedstock production – Plant growth and response to

Science in Bioenergy & Bioproducts • Feedstock production – Plant growth and response to stress (and on marginal lands); – Higher productivity at lower input (water, fertilizer, etc. ) – Production of certain components and/or new components => Functional genomics; biochemistry; physiology; cellular control mechanisms; respiration; photosynthesis, metabolism, nutrient use, disease response • Biochemical pathways => Biocatalysis: enzyme function and regulation; enzyme engineering; catalyst reaction rates and specificity • Thermochemical pathways => Product-selective thermal cracking of biomass; CFD modeling • Bioproducts => New and novel monomers and polymers; – Biomass composites; => adhesion/surface science • Combustion => NOx chemistry; CFD modeling

Power Technologies

Power Technologies

Science in the Power Sector • PV – Materials, growth, characterization, => Quantum dot

Science in the Power Sector • PV – Materials, growth, characterization, => Quantum dot cells, multiple quantum well devices, etc. , multi-junction thin films—interface chemistry, physics, defects, materials compatibility • Geothermal – Geoscience: formation/flow of fluids through fractured media; characterizing geology; geochemistry • Wind – Computational fluid dynamics to model turbulent flow for wind turbine design – Modeling meso-scale atmospheric phenomena for wind forecasting for utilities – Composite materials—materials strength, fatigue properties • HTS – Materials • Remote sensing – algorithms for determining atmospheric and surface properties (aerosol optical depth, surface insolation, surface winds, bioenergy resources)

Pasteur’s Quadrant Use-inspired Fundamental Research Donald Stokes, “Pasteur’s Quadrant”, Brookings, 1977 Considerations of Use?

Pasteur’s Quadrant Use-inspired Fundamental Research Donald Stokes, “Pasteur’s Quadrant”, Brookings, 1977 Considerations of Use? YES Quest for Fundamental Understanding? NO NO YES Bohr’s Quadrant Pasteur’s Quadrant Edison’s Quadrant

Partnerships • Models: HTS; Fuel Cells; Combustion Lab; PV; Centers of Excellence for Materials

Partnerships • Models: HTS; Fuel Cells; Combustion Lab; PV; Centers of Excellence for Materials Synthesis and Processing; National Plant Genome Initiative; SBIR/STTR • Workshops, Roadmapping -- focused on results – Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells, 1999; Chemical Vision 2020; PV • Common oversight – Research Advisory Task Forces; Peer Reviews; Energy Materials Coordinating Committee; • Co-location – Basic to Applied: BES/LBNL work on fundamental laser-material interactions – Applied to Basic: 40% eff. PV: materials, mobility-limiting mechs. Fuel cells. – Task Division: Multi-disciplinary teams: ORNL work on HTS with both BES and EE support. Fuel Cells. – Centers of Excellence; common access to user facilities & equipment • Building on successes – Common understanding, awareness, working relationships

NAS/NRC Benefits/Costs Framework Realized Options Knowledge Benefits and Costs Economic Benefits and Costs Environmental

NAS/NRC Benefits/Costs Framework Realized Options Knowledge Benefits and Costs Economic Benefits and Costs Environmental Benefits and Costs Security Benefits and Costs