Basic Elements of Poetry
Flashcards Acrostic poem Alliteration Allusion Aside Blank Verse Comic relief Couplet Dialogue Dramatic Irony End Rhyme Closed Form Open Form Free Verse Haiku Iambic pentameter Imagery Internal Rhyme Metaphor Onomatopoeia Personification Poetic foot Pun Rhyme Scheme Rhyme Shakespearean Sonnet Simile Soliloquy Speaker Tercet Tragic Flaw Jiram. pbworks. com 9 th grade comp/lit Calendar 1/6 Basic Elements of Poetry`
Poetry a patterned expression of ideas in imaginative terms, usually (but not necessarily) containing rhyme and a specific meter.
Form Closed Open
Form Closed: allows the poet to establish a pattern that will help him or her create the desired meaning or sound. Open: allows the poet to write freely without worrying about trying to make the words fit a specific meter or rhyme scheme.
Who is the speaker? the voice telling the poem; a poem may have more than one speaker; the speaker and the poet are not necessarily the same
Rhyme the similarity or likeness of sound existing between two words; the repetition of sounds that are similar or identical; expresses strong feelings and enhances the meaning and impact of poetry rhyme scheme: the pattern of rhymes formed by the end rhyme in a poem; first sound is a, second sound is b, third sound is c, etc.
Rhythm the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (beats) we hear in poetry; stress is simply the greater amount of emphasis we give to a syllable in speaking; stressed syllable is accented (long); unstressed syllable is unaccented (short)
Meter the pattern of rhythm in a line of poetry; from the Greek word meaning "measure"; the type of meter depends upon the placement of stress within each poetical foot (see chart below)
Poetical Foot Unit used to measure rhythm Monometer=1 foot (2 syllables) Dimeter= 2 feet (4 syllables) Trimeter= 3 feet (6 syllables) Tetrameter= 4 feet (8 syllables) Pentameter= 5 feet (10 syllables)
Verse Forms Rhymed Verse: contains end rhyme and usually has a regular meter and rhyme scheme; rhyming couplets means that every two lines rhyme; an example of "closed form" Blank Verse: contains a fixed rhythm and regular line length BUT no rhyme. Free Verse: poetry free of traditional metrical and stanzaic patterns; no fixed rhythm or rhyme scheme; uses everyday (colloquial) language, natural speech rhythms, and differing line lengths; key feature is its departure from traditional meters; an example of "open form“.
Dialogue Communication between characters
Dramatic Irony When the reader/audience knows more than the characters Like in a scary movie… you know the monster is in the closet so you tell the main character not to open the closet!
Types of poems Ballad Tercets Couplets Sonnet Acrostic Haiku
Ballad A group of 4 lines is a STANZA. The ballad has a rhyme at the end of line number 2 and line number 4. A-B-C-B
Tercet Tercets have 3 lines.
Couplets have 2 lines that rhyme.
Sonnet Sonnets are composed of 14 lines. Always ends with a couplet. Rhyme scheme: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
Sonnet Example One of the hardest things is poetry, Reading, thinking, finding what words mean, I bet you're wondering how this could be, Never easy to find the hidden theme. Please spare me all the meter, rhyme, and spondee, I can't believe I had to take this class, I do despise it - means nothing to me, Sometimes I feel like such a striped bass. As much as I can try so hard to see, I have to say that poetry is tough, To comprehend it takes an eternity, To understand the rules is not enough. To learn about this thing called poetry, I wish that someone could do it for me.
Acrostic Poem F R I E N D S When you use each letter in a word or name to describe it.
Haiku A Japanese poem composed of three lines. Each line has a different amount of syllables. 5 -7 -5 They are usually about nature.
Who used iambic pentameter? Chaucer, Milton and Shakespeare were all famous for the use of iambic pentameter in their writing.
What is iambic pentameter? Penta= 5 Meter= measure Iamb=2 syllables Iambic refers to an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Three quatrains and a couplet. 14 lines Each line has 10 syllables
Example I – com-PARE – thee – TO – a – SUM-mer’s DAY? Shall –
Aside A speech directed to the audience that is not heard by the other characters on stage.
Comic Relief A funny scene used to break the tension, in a serious plot
Imagery When the author adds details so that the words can create an image in the reader’s mind. Example: The boy’s tears ran down his face. His salty tears stained his paper and made everyone turn their heads to look at him.
Metaphors & Similes Metaphor: NOT using like or as to compare TWO unlike objects Ex: She is my sunshine after the rain. Simile: Using like or as to compare TWO unlike objects Ex: He is LIKE the sunshine after the rain.
Onomatopoeia Words that sound like what they mean Ex: Ring, ring! Drop, drop… Boom!
Personification When human qualities are given to objects or concepts Ex: The moon kept hiding behind the clouds. Ex: Life keeps hitting me in the face! Ex: The computer hates me!
Pun A play on words because a word has more thank one meaning or SOUNDS like another word Ex: Math teachers have many problems!
Shakespearean Sonnet A poem that has 14 lines Written in iambic pentameter Has 3 quatrains Ends in a couplet
Soliloquy When the character is alone on stage and says his/her thoughts aloud Ex: Romeo expressing his love for Juliet.
Tragic flaw When the hero makes a HUGE mistake causing him/her to fail or die