Basement Membrane Basement Membrane The basement membrane is

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Basement Membrane

Basement Membrane

Basement Membrane • The basement membrane is a thin sheet of fibers that underlies

Basement Membrane • The basement membrane is a thin sheet of fibers that underlies the epithelium • The basement membrane is the fusion of two lamina, the basal lamina and the reticular lamina (or lamina reticularis)

Basement Membrane • lamina lucida - electron lucent (very little staining in the EM).

Basement Membrane • lamina lucida - electron lucent (very little staining in the EM). • lamina densa - electron dense. • lamina reticularis - can be associated with reticular fibres of the underlying connective tissue.

Basement Membrane

Basement Membrane

Apical surface Lateral surface Epithelium Basal lamina Reticular lamina Connective tissue

Apical surface Lateral surface Epithelium Basal lamina Reticular lamina Connective tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Basal lamina • laminin, integrins, entactins, and dystroglycans) together make up the basal lamina

Basal lamina • laminin, integrins, entactins, and dystroglycans) together make up the basal lamina • intrinsic macromolecular components

lamina lucida &lamina densa • Lamina Densa – dense layer closer to the connective

lamina lucida &lamina densa • Lamina Densa – dense layer closer to the connective tissue – 30– 70 nm in thickness – consists of an underlying network of reticular collagen (type IV) fibrils • Lamina Lucida – clear layer close to epithelium

Functions of basement membrane • anchor down the epithelium to its loose connective tissue

Functions of basement membrane • anchor down the epithelium to its loose connective tissue (the dermis) underneath – provide structural support to the tissue • offer functional input to modulate cellular function. (fine tune cellular function) • a mechanical barrier, preventing malignant cells from invading the deeper tissues • accelerate differentiation of endothelial cells • essential for angiogenesis

Basal Lamina affecting cell function • Limits contact between different types of cells in

Basal Lamina affecting cell function • Limits contact between different types of cells in the tissue – At the neuromuscular junction, the basal lamina that surrounds the muscle cells, separates the nerve cell from the muscle cell at the synapse, and helps to regenerate the synapse after injury, and helps to localize acetylcholine receptors • acts as a filter allowing only water and small molecules to pass through permeability barrier or sieve – In the kidney, the basal lamina acts as a molecular filter

Fusion of basal laminae • Glomerular filtration of the kidney – by the fusion

Fusion of basal laminae • Glomerular filtration of the kidney – by the fusion of the basal lamina from the endothelium of glomerular capillaries and the basal lamina of the epithelium of the Bowman's capsule • Gaseous exchange between lung alveoli and pulmonary capillaries – by the fusion of the basal lamina of the lung alveoli and of the basal lamina of the lung capillaries

basal lamina (lamina – layers) can be organised in three ways: 1. Can surround

basal lamina (lamina – layers) can be organised in three ways: 1. Can surround cells (muscle fibres) 2. Lies underneath sheets of epithelial cells 3. Separates two sheets of cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels and epithelial cells of another tissue. This type of arrangement is found in the kidney glomerulus, lungs (basal lamina acts as a permeability barrier or sieve).

Structure of Basement membrane • Basement Membrane – Basal Lamina • Lamina Lucida –

Structure of Basement membrane • Basement Membrane – Basal Lamina • Lamina Lucida – Laminin, integrins, entactins, dystroglycans • Lamina Densa consists of a network of fine filaments. – Type IV collagen. forms felt-like network of fibers that gives the basement membrane its tensile strength – Lamina Reticularis – Type III collagen (as reticular fibers) – Attaching proteins (between Basal and Reticular Laminae) • Type VII collagen (anchoring fibrils) • fibrillin (microfibrils)

Basement Membrane

Basement Membrane

Collagen • Collagen I is the most abundant protein in the human body •

Collagen • Collagen I is the most abundant protein in the human body • Type IV collagen is the most abundant protein in BMs.

Connective Tissue Collagen

Connective Tissue Collagen

Connective Tissue Collagen

Connective Tissue Collagen

Collagen Networks (Forming anchoring fibrils) Type Tissue Function VII Epithelia Anchors skin epidermis to

Collagen Networks (Forming anchoring fibrils) Type Tissue Function VII Epithelia Anchors skin epidermis to dermis IV Basement membrane Support, filteration

Collagen Types (Fibril Forming) Type Tissue Function I Skin, tendon, bone, dentine Resistance to

Collagen Types (Fibril Forming) Type Tissue Function I Skin, tendon, bone, dentine Resistance to tension II Cartilage, vitreous Resistance to pressure III Skin, muscle, BV, +type I Structure maintenance in expansile organs V Fetus, skin, bone, placenta, interstitium Like type I XI cartilage Like type II

Collagen Networks (Forming anchoring fibrils) Type Tissue Function VII Epithelia Anchors skin epidermis to

Collagen Networks (Forming anchoring fibrils) Type Tissue Function VII Epithelia Anchors skin epidermis to dermis IV Basement membrane Support, filteration

Collagen Types (Fibril Binding) Type Tissue Function IX Cartilage, vitreous Binds gly-a-gly XI Embryo(tendon,

Collagen Types (Fibril Binding) Type Tissue Function IX Cartilage, vitreous Binds gly-a-gly XI Embryo(tendon, skin) As type II III Fetus(tendon, skin) Interacts with type I

Links between basal and reticular laminae • The lamina reticularis is attached to the

Links between basal and reticular laminae • The lamina reticularis is attached to the basal lamina with anchoring fibrils (type VII collagen fibers) and microfibrils (fibrillin). • supportive matrix

Basement membrane

Basement membrane

Structure of Basement Membrane

Structure of Basement Membrane

Cancer cells (Malignant) • If the epithelial cells become transformed (cancerous) and become 'malignant',

Cancer cells (Malignant) • If the epithelial cells become transformed (cancerous) and become 'malignant', they are able to break through the basement membrane and invade the tissues beneath. This characteristic is used in the diagnosis of malignant epithelial tumors

a poorly functioning basement membrane Diseases • Genetic defects • Injuries by the body's

a poorly functioning basement membrane Diseases • Genetic defects • Injuries by the body's own immune system • Other mechanisms • Alport syndrome – Genetic defects • Goodpasture's syndrome – Collagen type IV is autoantigen (target antigen) of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease • Epidermolysis bullosa – Skin • Muscular dystrophy – Dystrophin. a glycoprotein in the plasma membrane of muscle cells re In muscular dystrophy, this protein is defective or missing

K I D N E Y

K I D N E Y

Renal Corpuscle

Renal Corpuscle

Renal Corpuscle

Renal Corpuscle

Basement Membrane in Kidney

Basement Membrane in Kidney

Special stains • periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining – reacts with the sugar moieties of

Special stains • periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining – reacts with the sugar moieties of its proteoglycans • Alcian blue

Case -1 (Alport’s Syndrome) Electron Micrograph

Case -1 (Alport’s Syndrome) Electron Micrograph

Case -1 (Alport’s Syndrome) Electron Micrograph

Case -1 (Alport’s Syndrome) Electron Micrograph

Skin

Skin