- Slides: 49
Baptism and Confirmation
Sacraments of Initiation • Baptism • Confirmation / Chrismation • Eucharist
What does Baptism do? • End to sin • New beginning of goodness – a rebirth • Burial with Christ in a sacramental death with hope of rising to new life • Membership in the Body of Christ • Effects of Baptism • New Relationship with God • New Relationship with Christ • New Relationship with the Church as the people of God
What happens in Baptism • Water is the sign, the spirit is the divine presence and action which brings about the rebirth • We utilize the material to express the spiritual • This sacrament is a once and forever experience
Effects of Baptism • Participate in the sacraments of the church - participate in sanctifying grace… • Establishment of a living relationship with God. • It requires a human response to God’s offer of grace… • Titles: • • New Creations Adopted children of God Living members of Christ Temples of the Holy Spirit
Mark 10 • 10: 13 People were bringing little children to him in order that he might touch them; and the disciples spoke sternly to them. 10: 14 But when Jesus saw this, he was indignant and said to them, "Let the little children come to me; do not stop them; for it is to such as these that the kingdom of God belongs. 10: 15 Truly I tell you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God as a little child will never enter it. "10: 16 And he took them up in his arms, laid his hands on them, and blessed them.
Acts 16: 14 -15 • 16: 14 A certain woman named Lydia, a worshiper of God, was listening to us; she was from the city of Thyatira and a dealer in purple cloth. The Lord opened her heart to listen eagerly to what was said by Paul. 16: 15 When she and her household were baptized, she urged us, saying, "If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come and stay at my home. " And she prevailed upon us.
Acts 16: 29 -34 • 16: 29 The jailer called for lights, and rushing in, he fell down trembling before Paul and Silas. 16: 30 Then he brought them outside and said, "Sirs, what must I do to be saved? "16: 31 They answered, "Believe on the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household. "16: 32 They spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all who were in his house. 16: 33 At the same hour of the night he took them and washed their wounds; then he and his entire family were baptized without delay. 16: 34 He brought them up into the house and set food before them; and he and his entire household rejoiced that he had become a believer in God.
1 Cor 1: 12 -18 • 1: 12 What I mean is that each of you says, "I belong to Paul, " or "I belong to Apollos, " or "I belong to Cephas, " or "I belong to Christ. "1: 13 Has Christ been divided? Was Paul crucified for you? Or were you baptized in the name of Paul? 1: 14 I thank God that I baptized none of you except Crispus and Gaius, 1: 15 so that no one can say that you were baptized in my name. 1: 16 (I did baptize also the household of Stephanas; beyond that, I do not know whether I baptized anyone else. ) 1: 17 For Christ did not send me to baptize but to proclaim the gospel, and not with eloquent wisdom, so that the cross of Christ might not be emptied of its power. 1: 18 For the message about the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.
Historical Background • Polycarp (110) speaks of infant baptized • 185 Ireneaus Against the Heresies “all born again into God • Origin (d. 253) church received tradition from Apostles to baptize infants • Tertullian On Baptism 200 against Baptizing infants (first known author to challenge the issue of infant Baptism) • Cyprian 258 “from Baptism and from grace … must not be kept the infant” • Augustine 354 -430 said that we should baptize children because they were in sin and needed Christ’s saving grace
Role of Community and Parents • The people of God, that is, the Church, made present by the local community, has an important part to play in the baptism of both children and adults. Before and after the celebration of the sacrament, the child has a right to the love and help of the community. (Baptism for Children Intro 4) • After baptism it is the responsibility of the parents, in their gratitude to God and in fidelity to the duty they have undertaken, to assist the child to know God, whose adopted child it has become, to prepare the child to receive confirmation and participate in the Holy Eucharist. (Baptism for Children Intro 5. 4)
Paschal Character of Baptism • Celebration on Easter Vigil and on Sundays • Why?
Outline of Infant Baptism • Reception of the Children • Liturgy of the Word • Readings and Homily • Intercessions (Prayer of the Faithful) • Prayer of Exorcism • Anointing before Baptism • Blessing and Invocation of God over Baptismal Water • Renunciation of Sin and Profession of Faith • Baptism
Outline of Infant Baptism • Anointing after Baptism • Clothing with White Garment • Lighted Candle • Ephphetha Rite • Conclusion • Song • Lord’s Prayer • Blessing and Dismissal
Baptismal Formulae • Latin Church: "N. , I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. “ • Eastern Church: "The servant of God, N. , is baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. "
Ephphetha Rite • Text of the prayer to be said while the celebrant touches the ears and mouth of each child with his thumb: “The Lord Jesus made the deaf hear and the dumb speak. May he soon touch your ears to receive his word, and your mouth to proclaim his faith, to the praise and glory of God the Father. ” • It is optional
RCIA • What do these initials stand for? • Have you had any experience with the RCIA? What was it? • Who are the proper subjects of the RCIA? • When is the Rite celebrated? • What sacraments are celebrated as a part of the RCIA? Why? • Is this a totally new order? • What do you remember from the history part of this course?
RCIA • The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults is the unfolding of a person’s entrance into the community of believers • It respects an ancient order while at the same time adapting itself to our times and the need that we face • The unity of the three sacraments provides the most comprehensive symbolic system for bringing a person into union with the church and their new life with God
RCIA • I. Acceptance into the Order of Catechumens • II. Anointing with the Oil of Catechumens • III. Election or Enrollment of Names • IV. Period of Purification and Enlightenment • V. Celebration of the Sacraments of Initiation: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist
IV. Period of Purification and Enlightenment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. First Scrutiny – 3 rd Sunday of Lent – first rite after rite of election – catechumen with God parents priest prayers over them and so does the community Second Scrutiny – 4 th Sunday of Lent Third Scrutiny – 5 th Sunday of Lent – Gospel of Lazarus Presentation of the Lord’s Prayer – 5 th week of Lent, preferably celebrated in presence of the community Recitation of the Creed – prepares the elect for the profession of faith they will make immediately after they are baptized, also instructs on their duty to proclaim the message of the Gospel
IV. Period of Purification and Enlightenment 6. 7. Ephphetha Rite – mimicking the Lord this rite is an opening of the ears and mouth – it impresses on the elect their need of grace in order that they may hear the Word of God and profess it for their salvation. Choosing of a Baptismal Name – elect may choose a new name – often the sign of following a hero
V. Celebration of Baptism, Confirmation and Eucharist 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Easter Vigil is the usual time for this celebration Highpoints – Baptismal washing and invocation of the Holy Trinity Blessing of Water – focuses upon the religious meaning of water as God’s creation and the sacramental use of water in the unfolding of the paschal mystery – also a remembrance of God’s wonderful works in the history of salvation Renunciation of sin and profession of faith by the elect Water Baptism: with formula “I baptize you in the Name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit”
V. Celebration of Baptism, Confirmation and Eucharist 6. Explanatory Rites: these give full expression to the effects of Baptism. Clothing of the Baptismal garment signifies the new dignity they have received. Lighted Candle shows that they are called to walk as befits children of light 7. 8. Confirmation: signifies the close link between the manifestation of the Son and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Anointing with Chrism is a sign of the royal priesthood of the baptized. N. sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit. First Sharing in the Eucharist: now have an active part in the fullness of the community – not taken out apart from it.
Baptism • Immersion – why is it to be preferred • Sponsors
Conclusions • Baptism is the central element of our entrance into the church and new life with God • Children are baptized as a pledge of their participation in the Christian community based upon the lived faith experience of their families • Strong scriptural witness for the Baptism of Children as well as adults
Confirmation / Chrismation
Seal • Σφραγίς / Sphragis or Seal – used to impress a mark on wax. • 1 Cor 9: 2 “Although I may not be an apostle for others, certainly I am for you, for you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord. ” • They are the seal of Paul’s apostolate, a sign • A mark of ownership, a brand • A mark of protection
History of Confirmation • Original unity of Confirmation with Baptism • By fourth century: • Rome: seal at the end of Baptism reserved for the bishop • N. Italy and Gaul: seal could be done by the presbyter • 5 th century, Innocent I: “It belongs solely to the episcopal office that bishops consign and give the Paraclete Spirit. This is proved not only by ecclesiastical custom but also by that reading of the Acts of the Apostles which recounts how Peter and John were directed to give the Holy Spirit to the already baptized. ”
History of Confirmation • “Germanization” of liturgy and Confirmation • The situation in Rome: unity of sacraments of initiation remained • The situation outside of Rome: unity of sacraments starts to break down 9 th century on Carolingian reform focus on unity with Rome • 10 th century only giving communion to infants by the cup, 12 th century stopped giving the cup • Council of Lambeth 1281 – no confirmation – then no communion
Change In Understanding • This postponement of the sacrament led to an additional layer of meaning • Develops into notion of confirming and giving maturity for the spiritual battle, perfects and enables one to bear witness and to defend the faith
Reflects salvation history • Death and Resurrection of Jesus = Baptism Event • Pentecost Mystery = Confirmation • Originally celebrated in one unity
What is the Age? • 1932 Congregation of Sacraments – children should be confirmed before their First Eucharist. • 1952 – The Commission for the Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law said 10 was too late. • At what age are people confirmed today?
Catechism Overview • 1285 Baptism, the Eucharist, and the sacrament of Confirmation together constitute the "sacraments of Christian initiation, " whose unity must be safeguarded. It must be explained to the faithful that the reception of the sacrament of Confirmation is necessary for the completion of baptismal grace. For "by the sacrament of Confirmation, [the baptized] are more perfectly bound to the Church and are enriched with a special strength of the Holy Spirit. Hence they are, as true witnesses of Christ, more strictly obliged to spread and defend the faith by word and deed. "
Catechism Overview 1287 This fullness of the Spirit was not to remain uniquely the Messiah's, but was to be communicated to the whole messianic people. On several occasions Christ promised this outpouring of the Spirit, a promise which he fulfilled first on Easter Sunday and then more strikingly at Pentecost. Filled with the Holy Spirit the apostles began to proclaim "the mighty works of God, " and Peter declared this outpouring of the Spirit to be the sign of the messianic age. Those who believed in the apostolic preaching and were baptized received the gift of the Holy Spirit in their turn.
Catechism Overview 1288 From that time on the apostles, in fulfillment of Christ's will, imparted to the newly baptized by the laying on of hands the gift of the Spirit that completes the grace of Baptism. For this reason in the Letter to the Hebrews the doctrine concerning Baptism and the laying on of hands is listed among the first elements of Christian instruction. The imposition of hands is rightly recognized by the Catholic tradition as the origin of the sacrament of Confirmation, which in a certain way perpetuates the grace of Pentecost in the Church.
Catechism Overview • 1289 Very early, the better to signify the gift of the Holy Spirit, an anointing with perfumed oil (chrism) was added to the laying on of hands. This anointing highlights the name "Christian, " which means "anointed" and derives from that of Christ himself whom God "anointed with the Holy Spirit. " This rite of anointing has continued ever since, in both East and West. For this reason the Eastern Churches call this sacrament Chrismation, anointing with chrism, or myron which means "chrism. " In the West, Confirmation suggests both the ratification of Baptism, thus completing Christian initiation, and the strengthening of baptismal grace - both fruits of the Holy Spirit.
Catechism Overview 1293 In treating the rite of Confirmation, it is fitting to consider the sign of anointing and what it signifies and imprints: a spiritual seal. Anointing, in Biblical and other ancient symbolism, is rich in meaning: oil is a sign of abundance and joy; it cleanses (anointing before and after a bath) and limbers (the anointing of athletes and wrestlers); oil is a sign of healing, since it is soothing to bruises and wounds; and it makes radiant with beauty, health, and strength.
Confirmation Overview – Its Meaning 1294 Anointing with oil has all these meanings in the sacramental life. The pre-baptismal anointing with the oil of catechumens signifies cleansing and strengthening; the anointing of the sick expresses healing and comfort. The post- baptismal anointing with sacred chrism in Confirmation and ordination is the sign of consecration. By Confirmation Christians, that is, those who are anointed, share more completely in the mission of Jesus Christ and the fullness of the Holy Spirit with which he is filled, so that their lives may give off "the aroma of Christ. "
Confirmation Overview – The Seal of the Spirit 1295 By this anointing the confirmand receives the "mark, " the seal of the Holy Spirit. A seal is a symbol of a person, a sign of personal authority, or ownership of an object. Hence soldiers were marked with their leader's seal and slaves with their master's. A seal authenticates a juridical act or document and occasionally makes it secret.
Confirmation Overview – The Seal of the Spirit 1296 Christ himself declared that he was marked with his Father's seal. Christians are also marked with a seal: "It is God who establishes us with you in Christ and has commissioned us; he has put his seal on us and given us his Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee. " This seal of the Holy Spirit marks our total belonging to Christ, our enrollment in his service for ever, as well as the promise of divine protection in the great eschatological trial.
Confirmation Overview – The Formula 1300 The essential rite of the sacrament follows. In the Latin rite, "the sacrament of Confirmation is conferred through the anointing with chrism on the forehead, which is done by the laying on of the hand, and through the words: “Accipe signaculum doni Spiritus Sancti” [Be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit. ]. In the Eastern Churches, after a prayer of epiclesis the more significant parts of the body are anointed with myron: forehead, eyes, nose, ears, lips, breast, back, hands, and feet. Each anointing is accompanied by the formula: "The seal of the gift that is the Holy Spirit. "
Confirmation Overview – Full Outpouring of the Holy Spirit 1302 It is evident from its celebration that the effect of the sacrament of Confirmation is the full outpouring of the Holy Spirit as once granted to the apostles on the day of Pentecost.
Effects of Confirmation 1303 From this fact, Confirmation brings an increase and deepening of baptismal grace: - it roots us more deeply in the divine filiation which makes us cry, "Abba! Father!“; - it unites us more firmly to Christ; - it increases the gifts of the Holy Spirit in us; - it renders our bond with the Church more perfect; - it gives us a special strength of the Holy Spirit to spread and defend the faith by word and action as true witnesses of Christ, to confess the name of Christ boldly, and never to be ashamed of the Cross.
Priesthood of All • 1304 Like Baptism which it completes, Confirmation is given only once, for it too imprints on the soul an indelible spiritual mark, the "character, " which is the sign that Jesus Christ has marked a Christian with the seal of his Spirit by clothing him with power from on high so that he may be his witness. • 1305 This "character" perfects the common priesthood of the faithful, received in Baptism, and "the confirmed person receives the power to profess faith in Christ publicly and as it were officially (quasi ex officio). "
Age for Confirmation 1307 The Latin tradition gives "the age of discretion" as the reference point for receiving Confirmation. But in danger of death children should be confirmed even if they have not yet attained the age of discretion.
Age of Confirmation 1308 Although Confirmation is sometimes called the "sacrament of Christian maturity, " we must not confuse adult faith with the adult age of natural growth, nor forget that the baptismal grace is a grace of free, unmerited election and does not need "ratification" to become effective. St. Thomas reminds us of this: Age of body does not determine age of soul. Even in childhood man can attain spiritual maturity: as the book of Wisdom says: For old age is not honored for length of time, or measured by number of years. Many children, through the strength of the Holy Spirit they have received, have bravely fought for Christ even to the shedding of their blood.
Overview 1320 The essential rite of Confirmation is anointing the forehead of the baptized with sacred chrism (in the East other sense-organs as well), together with the laying on of the minister's hand the words: "Accipe signaculum doni Spiritus Sancti" (Be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit. ) in the Roman Rite, or "The seal of the gift that is the Holy Spirit" in the Byzantine rite. 1321 When Confirmation is celebrated separately from Baptism, its connection with Baptism is expressed, among other ways, by the renewal of baptismal promises. The celebration of Confirmation during the Eucharist helps underline the unity of the sacraments of Christian initiation.
Conclusion • Confirmation is the outpouring of the Spirit in our lives • It is a once and forever experience • In the Latin Rite, the Bishop is the normal minister, but the priest can also be the minister of this sacrament • This sacrament should not be considered just as a “sacrament of Christian maturity”