Aviation Safety Program Av SAFE Aviation Safety Program

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Aviation Safety Program (Av. SAFE) Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Integrated Vehicle Health Management

Aviation Safety Program (Av. SAFE) Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Research Celeste M. Belcastro, Ph. D. Principal Investigator for IVHM NASA Aviation Safety Program Phone: 757 -864 -6182 e-mail: celeste. m. [email protected] gov

Outline Aviation Safety Program • Research Motivation • IVHM Long-Term Mission and Goals •

Outline Aviation Safety Program • Research Motivation • IVHM Long-Term Mission and Goals • IVHM Technical Plan – 5 -Year Objectives – Technical Areas – Integrated Technology Development • IVHM Project Summary IVHM Research

IVHM Research Motivation - National Interests & Goals (1) Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research

IVHM Research Motivation - National Interests & Goals (1) Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Improve Aircraft Safety Worldwide Jet Airplane Accidents from 1959 through 2004 (Boeing Data) 3631 National Need: • Reduce Aircraft System and Component Failures that Cause and Contribute to Accidents & Incidents in Legacy and Future Aircraft – 2258 Fatalities 2524 System and Component Failures is a Significant Causal and Contributing Factor in Aircraft Accidents across all Vehicle Classes • System & Component Failures Fire Icing Fuel System & Component Failures and Onboard Hazards Contribute to 24% of Aircraft Accident Fatalities – Significant Causes are Improper Maintenance, Fatigue/Failure, and Unknown System and Component Malfunctions and Failures is the Largest Contributor to Transport Aircraft Incidents • Reduce Environmental Hazards that Cause and Contribute to Accidents & Incidents in Legacy and Future Aircraft – – Icing in Engines and on Airframe Detonation Properties and Inerting of Future Fuels – – Lightning and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Single Event Effects from Ionizing Radiation • Identify and Address Emerging Threats to Aircraft Safety Potential Problems to be Addressed: • Full Understanding of Degradation/Failure/Damage/Effects Physics for Aircraft Propulsion, Flight Systems, and Structure Currently Does Not Exist • Integrated Validated Technologies for Prevention, Detection, Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Mitigation of In-Flight System and Component Malfunctions, Failures, and Damage in Legacy and Future Aircraft are needed • Full Understanding of Hazard Physics, System Effects, and Mitigation Methods for Engine and Airframe Icing, Lightning and EMI, and Ionizing Radiation Does Not Exist • Need Enabling Technologies to Support the Transition to More Effective Condition-Based Maintenance • Inability to Perform V&V of IVHM Technologies in Flight with Multiple Failures

IVHM Research Motivation - National Interests & Goals (2) Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research

IVHM Research Motivation - National Interests & Goals (2) Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Aircraft Technologies to Support Safe Implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System National Need: • Avionics with High Levels of Autonomy are Required for Future Aircraft – – – • Net-Enabled Information Access • Performance-Based Services • Weather-Assimilated Decision Making • Layered, Adaptive Security • Broad-Area Precision Navigation • Trajectory-Based Aircraft Operations • “Equivalent Visual” Operations • “Super Density” Operations Sensing, Control, Communications, Navigation Prognostic Health Management and Self-Healing Systems Support New Concepts in Air Traffic Management Support Enhanced Flight Deck Technologies Support Extended Operational Envelopes • • • 4 -D Flight Path Prediction and Tracking Aircraft Self-Separation Simultaneous Precision Approaches on Multiple Runways • Routine Operations in Adverse Weather Conditions – – – Wake Vortex Location and Strength Prediction and Sensing Robustness of Flight Control to Turbulence and Wind Shear Robustness of Avionics to Lightning Strikes Potential Problems to be Addressed: • High-Integrity Autonomous Flight Systems are Required – – New Levels of Safety and Reliability New Levels of Functional Redundancy and Robustness • Prognostic Health Management & Self-Healing System Technologies are Needed • Understanding of Lightning Effects on Critical Systems and Structures for Routine All-Weather Operations is Needed – – Meeting the Needs of Legacy and Future Fleet Aircraft Comprehensive Damage Modeling & Simulation Methods Damage Effects Assessment Methods • Inability to Perform Full In-Flight Validation Prior to NGATS Implementation

IVHM Long-Term Mission and Goals Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Mission: • Develop technologies

IVHM Long-Term Mission and Goals Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Mission: • Develop technologies to determine system/component degradation and damage early enough to prevent or gracefully recover from in-flight failures in the NGATS environment Goals: • Reduce system and component failures as causal and contributing factors in aircraft accidents and incidents • Provide continuous on-board situational awareness of vehicle health state for use by the flight crew, ground crew, and maintenance depot

IVHM Project Objectives: First 5 -Years Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Objectives: • Develop

IVHM Project Objectives: First 5 -Years Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Objectives: • Develop tools and techniques to: – Determine the health state of subsystems (airframe, propulsion, electrical power, avionics including flight control system, complex electromechanical systems) such that the health state of the entire vehicle can be determined for accurate prognosis – Diagnose coupled degradation/malfunction/failure/hazard conditions and predict their effects on vehicle safety – Mitigate damage/degradation/failures in-flight • Develop a public database and testing capabilities for IVHM technologies

Technical Approach Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Approach: • Develop and employ virtual and

Technical Approach Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Approach: • Develop and employ virtual and real sensors to assess subsystem states • Couple state awareness data with physics-based and data-driven models to diagnose degradation and damage caused by environmental hazards and electro/thermo/mechanical failures • Integrate sub-system information to provide diagnostics and prognostics for the entire vehicle, including using data from one subsystem to provide information for another • Develop locally-controlled mitigation techniques to extend safe operation time

IVHM Future Concept of Operations Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research • Provide continuous on-board

IVHM Future Concept of Operations Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research • Provide continuous on-board situational awareness of vehicle health state for use by the flight crew, ground crew, and maintenance depot • Reduce system and component failures as causal and contributing factors in aircraft accidents and incidents

IVHM Research Areas Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Integrated Continuous Onboard Vehicle Health State

IVHM Research Areas Aviation Safety Program IVHM Research Integrated Continuous Onboard Vehicle Health State Assessment and Management Onboard Environmental Hazard Detection and Effects Mitigation IVHM System Technologies Airframe Icing Architectures and Databases Propulsion Lightning and EMI/EMC Verification and Validation Aircraft Systems Ionizing Radiation Integration & Assessment

Integrated IVHM Technology Development Integrated Failure and Hazard Testing Accident & Incident Database &

Integrated IVHM Technology Development Integrated Failure and Hazard Testing Accident & Incident Database & Emerging Safety Concerns Failure Testing & Modeling • Aircraft Systems & Components • Structural Components • Engine and Components Risks Hazards Scenarios • System and Component Malfunctions and Failures • Environmental Hazards Environmental Hazard Testing & Modeling Risks • Icing Hazards • EMI/EMC Scenarios • Ionizing Radiation Integrated Flight Simulations IVHM Databases • System and Component Malfunctions Closedand Failures Loop Tests • Environmental Hazards Refinements to test plans • High-fidelity failure data • Experimental test data Structural Analysis, Diagnostics, Prognostics, & Mitigation • Static and dynamic response of fatigued and damaged structure to flight conditions and maneuvers • Residual strength determination for various levels and location of fatigue and damage • Sensors and Sensory materials • Feature extraction & Anomaly detection • Efficient computational algorithms • Diagnostic reasoning • Predictor/Corrector Prognostics with sensor data updates • Load margin determination • Failure mitigation methods Closed. Loop Tests IVHM Databases • High-fidelity hazard data • Experimental test data Propulsion Analysis, Diagnostics, Prognostics, & Mitigation • Static and dynamic response of engines with failures in flight conditions and maneuvers • Available thrust & performance margin determination for various levels of fatigue and component failures • High-Temperature Sensors • Feature extraction & Anomaly detection • Diagnostic/prognostic reasoning • Failure mitigation Aircraft System Analysis, Diagnostics, Prognostics, & Mitigation • Analysis of underlying malfunction and failure characteristics and effects in flight conditions and maneuvers • Achievable performance determination • Feature extraction • Anomaly detection • Function monitoring • Diagnostic and prognostic reasoning • Malfunction & failure mitigation Environmental Hazard Analysis, Diagnostics, Prognostics, & Mitigation • Analysis of underlying hazard characteristics and effects • Specialized Sensors • Feature extraction & Anomaly detection • Diagnostic and prognostic reasoning • Hazard Mitigation IVHM Architecture On-Board Vehicle-Wide Health State Reasoning & Performance Assessment • Integrated Diagnostics and Prognostics as a Function of Flight Conditions, Hazards, and Maneuvers IRAC • Failure Mitigation Using Flight Control • Failure Mitigation Using Engine Control • Active Airframe Structure Control • Diagnostics, Prognostics, and Mitigation of Correlated Unanticipated Failures and Malfunctions • On-Line Assessment of IVHM Performance and Confidence Metrics − Detection Probability − False Alarm Probability • Development of Control Limits/Constraints to Prevent Further Component Fatigue and Failure

IVHM Project Summary Aviation Safety Program • NASA IVHM Research Challenges – Development of

IVHM Project Summary Aviation Safety Program • NASA IVHM Research Challenges – Development of Computationally Efficient Failure/Degradation Physics Models for Inclusion in Diagnostics and Prognostics • – – Reduced Effects of Onboard Malfunctions and Failures IVHM Technology Database • Models, Data Sets, Algorithms, etc. Integration of IVHM and IRAC, IIFD, AAD, and Other ARMD Technologies – – – • Reduction of In-Flight Malfunctions and Failures Locally Controlled Failure and Hazard Mitigation • – Improved Accuracy and Performance for Coupled Failure Mechanisms Architecture and Algorithms for Near-Continuous Onboard Health State Assessment • – Improved Accuracy and Robustness in Adverse Operating Conditions Integrated Multi-Disciplinary Diagnostics and Prognostics • – Improved Accuracy and Confidence in Health State Assessment Inclusion of Hazard Effects into Diagnostics and Prognostics • • IVHM Research Integrated Flight/Engine/Airframe Control for Extended Life and Degradation/Failure Accommodation Enhanced Crew Situational Awareness of Aircraft Health State Adaptive Diagnostics and Prognostics that include Degradation Physics and Maintenance Scheduling IVHM Technologies for Advanced Subsonic, Supersonic, and Hypersonic Configurations Integration of Vehicle Health State Information into Operations in the NAS Broad Range of Industry Participation Anticipated – – – RFI Released in January 2006 Resulted in Many Responses Anticipate Partnerships through Space Act Agreements Would Like to Facilitate Development of Consortia for Collaborations