AVIAN INFLUENZA AVIAN INFLUENZA What is it How

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AVIAN INFLUENZA ?

AVIAN INFLUENZA ?

AVIAN INFLUENZA What is it? How does it affect birds? How does it affect

AVIAN INFLUENZA What is it? How does it affect birds? How does it affect me?

What is AI Virus Cell Replication

What is AI Virus Cell Replication

What is AI Linda Stannard RNA Haemaglutinin (16) Neuraminidase (9)

What is AI Linda Stannard RNA Haemaglutinin (16) Neuraminidase (9)

What is AI H-Highly P-Pathogenic A-Avian I-Influenza HPAI-H 5 N 1

What is AI H-Highly P-Pathogenic A-Avian I-Influenza HPAI-H 5 N 1

Role of wild birds • Type A - wild and domestic birds, humans, pigs,

Role of wild birds • Type A - wild and domestic birds, humans, pigs, horses and marine mammals. • Types B & C humans, less severe disease Waterbirds (ducks, gulls and shorebirds) are the natural reservoir

Avian Influenza in Waterfowl Subclinical/mild disease of the respiratory/GI tract § Fecal-oral transmission route

Avian Influenza in Waterfowl Subclinical/mild disease of the respiratory/GI tract § Fecal-oral transmission route § All AI endemic to waterfowl is low path § AIV is in evolutionary “stasis” in waterfowl (H 6 viruses isolated 81 years apart were 95. 3% identical) Takashi Koike

~10% ~60% Season Spring Summer Fall H 3, H 4, H 6 most common

~10% ~60% Season Spring Summer Fall H 3, H 4, H 6 most common Winter

Prevalence of H 5 N 1 in wild birds-2006 Africa. 0/3500 samples from Chad,

Prevalence of H 5 N 1 in wild birds-2006 Africa. 0/3500 samples from Chad, Mali, Ethiopia and Morocco (Vincent Martin, Nairobi meeting April 2006). Czech Republic 12/2038 (0. 53%) dead wild birds positive (OIE Dis Info v 19 #17). France 66/14, 000 (0. 47%) wild birds positive (NDTV, 4/22/06). UK 1/891 (0. 11%) dead swans H 5 N 1 positive (0. 11%) (DEFRA, 4/21/06).

PANDEMIC Human disease that spreads beyond large regions (e. g. between continents) 1) Subtype

PANDEMIC Human disease that spreads beyond large regions (e. g. between continents) 1) Subtype 2) Illness 3) Transmissible

2003 Wild Poultry 1997 1996 2004 2005 2006

2003 Wild Poultry 1997 1996 2004 2005 2006

First H 5 N 1 Detection Wild bird detections Imports 1 bird Poultry >1

First H 5 N 1 Detection Wild bird detections Imports 1 bird Poultry >1 bird Wild birds

Qinghai Outbreak - May 2005 • Wild birds affected at Qinghai Nature Reserve •

Qinghai Outbreak - May 2005 • Wild birds affected at Qinghai Nature Reserve • Mainly bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) • Gulls (2 species) Source: Liu et al. , 2005. Science. Liu et al, 2005. Science

H 5 N 1 -Who’s spreading it? Poultry? Wild birds?

H 5 N 1 -Who’s spreading it? Poultry? Wild birds?

2003 Wild Poultry 1997 1996 2004 2005 2006

2003 Wild Poultry 1997 1996 2004 2005 2006

Virus Receptor Cell membrane

Virus Receptor Cell membrane

Distribution of AI receptor in humans vs birds

Distribution of AI receptor in humans vs birds

CLINICAL SIGNS OF H 5 N 1 IN HUMANS Fever Headache Muscle pain Diarrhea

CLINICAL SIGNS OF H 5 N 1 IN HUMANS Fever Headache Muscle pain Diarrhea 3 -4 days illness onset 12 -29 days death

CASE FATALITY RATE (Probability of dying if you get it) 100 90 80 70

CASE FATALITY RATE (Probability of dying if you get it) 100 90 80 70 Probability 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 SARS 1918 Flu H 5 N 1 Ebola Marburg BOTTOM LINE: 1) H 5 N 1 is hard to get. 2) If you get it, odds of dying are 50: 50.

What is the risk of my getting H 5 N 1? It’s all relative

What is the risk of my getting H 5 N 1? It’s all relative Handling live sick birds with known H 5 N 1 Handling live sick birds Necropsying dead bird Swabbing live bird w. gloves Picking up dead bird w. gloves Sitting in this workshop H 5 N 1 has not been found in North or South America

Questions?

Questions?