Attention Message A Message B Message C Message

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Attention

Attention

感官刺激、淺層記憶、深層記憶與學習 感覺 知覺 Message A Message B Message C Message D B Limited capacity

感官刺激、淺層記憶、深層記憶與學習 感覺 知覺 Message A Message B Message C Message D B Limited capacity decision channel Selective Filter STM & WM Long term memory Senses are the physiological methods of perception. Responses

Cocktail party effect

Cocktail party effect

Broadbent’s(1958) Filter Theory of Selective Attention • Selective attention is what people colloquially think

Broadbent’s(1958) Filter Theory of Selective Attention • Selective attention is what people colloquially think of when they think of "attention. " It is attending to one stimuli while ignoring other competing stimuli.

Three primary theories of selective attention • Filter theory:Attention filters out extraneous information –

Three primary theories of selective attention • Filter theory:Attention filters out extraneous information – – – • Basic filter theory (Broadbent) Attenuation (weakened)theory (Triesman) Late-filter theory(only some conscious) (Deutsch & Deutsch) Bottleneck theory:Attention is a bottleneck that prevents extraneous information from getting through. (Similar to filter theory) Resource theory:Attention is a resource-based process, and once the resource is used up, no other information can be attended to. • – Driving and conversing with the person next to you vs. Driving and talking on a cell phone

Broadbent’s(1958) Filter Theory of Selective Attention Emails Message A B RSS Feeds Message B

Broadbent’s(1958) Filter Theory of Selective Attention Emails Message A B RSS Feeds Message B Chats Message C Text Messages Message D Selective Filter ? Limited capacity decision channel Long term memory Responses Post Emails

"Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up" • The filter can be directed by top-down or bottomup influences.

"Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up" • The filter can be directed by top-down or bottomup influences. • Top- down influences include a person's own intentions and expectations. – If I am trying to read a book, then my intention to read will direct my attention to the words on the page, constituting a top-down influence. • Bottom-up influences, by contrast, are directed by stimuli in the world that "catch" our attention. – If someone taps me on the shoulder while I'm reading, the tap will direct my attention away from the book and toward that person, constituting a bottom-up influence.

Sensory Store in Channel Theory

Sensory Store in Channel Theory

Shadowing 1. Each of ear listens to a different message (dichotic presentation) 2. The

Shadowing 1. Each of ear listens to a different message (dichotic presentation) 2. The listener is required to repeat the message that goes to one of the ears

Stroop effect 1. Selectively attending to the color and ignoring the word 2. Two

Stroop effect 1. Selectively attending to the color and ignoring the word 2. Two processes interfere with each other 3. One is automatic

Paying attention • Consciousness: 1. Internal stimuli: one’s state of mind 2. External stimuli:

Paying attention • Consciousness: 1. Internal stimuli: one’s state of mind 2. External stimuli: features of environment 3. Oneself: personal existence • Attention: 1. Enormous amount of information to our senses 2. Limited amount that we perceive • Application:

Implications of current research into attention process • Internally: Biological nature of attention process

Implications of current research into attention process • Internally: Biological nature of attention process • Externally: Relationships between the individual and presenting tasks

Biological factors of attention difficulties • Appropriate pharmacological treatment increasing attention efficiency • Unintended,

Biological factors of attention difficulties • Appropriate pharmacological treatment increasing attention efficiency • Unintended, unwanted side effects, such as liver damage

Intervention strategies contributing to academic success • Family systems counseling _ behavioral modification _

Intervention strategies contributing to academic success • Family systems counseling _ behavioral modification _ attention disorders • Individual counseling • (a) taking responsibility of one's disability • (b) developing skills to manage one's medication schedule • (c) developing more effective study skills • (d) making persistent efforts to improve reading, language, and math skills

Instruction that attract the attention of learners • A blend of attention strategies –

Instruction that attract the attention of learners • A blend of attention strategies – (a) the ability to focus attention – (b) the ability to sustain attention – (c) the ability to selectively attend to instructional stimuli – (d) the ability to engage in academic tasks requiring alternating attention – (e) the ability to engage in academic tasks requiring divided attention

Internal and External treatment • Pharmacological agents • Benefits of such treatment should offset

Internal and External treatment • Pharmacological agents • Benefits of such treatment should offset unwanted side effects • Externalized intervention strategies may include specific interventions made by teacher, family, and learner

Working Memory

Working Memory

A common use of working memory

A common use of working memory

May be that it is your working memory capacity that best ‘measures’ your intelligence.

May be that it is your working memory capacity that best ‘measures’ your intelligence. Key? Critical on learning !

1234567 • Working memory contains the information of which you are immediately aware. •

1234567 • Working memory contains the information of which you are immediately aware. • Key? Prerequisites!

1234567 • Are they seven chunk or a single chunk? • Key? Cognitive strategies!

1234567 • Are they seven chunk or a single chunk? • Key? Cognitive strategies!

Why are uniforms uniform? Because color helps us track objects • Laboratory tests have

Why are uniforms uniform? Because color helps us track objects • Laboratory tests have revealed that humans can pay attention to only 3 objects at a time. Yet there are instances in the real world — for example, in watching a soccer match — when we certainly think we are paying attention to more than 3 objects. Are we wrong? No. A new study shows how we do it — it’s all in the color coding. People can focus on more than three items at a time if those items share a common color. But, logically enough, no more than 3 color sets. July issue of Psychological Science.

People remember prices more easily if they have fewer syllables • The phonological loop

People remember prices more easily if they have fewer syllables • The phonological loop — an important component of working memory —can only hold 1. 5 to 2 seconds of spoken information. • Faster speakers have an advantage over slower speakers. • A consumer study reveals that every extra syllable in a product‘s price decreases its chances of being remembered by 20%. Thus, people who shorten the number of syllables (e. g. 5, 325, English vs. 中文) have better recall. However, since we store information both verbally and visually, it’s also the case that unusual looking prices, such as $8. 88, are recalled better than typical looking prices. September issue of the Journal of Consumer Research. Loading:STM & WM !

Cognitive strategies • Central executive: Coordinates and manages the various tasks needed • Containing

Cognitive strategies • Central executive: Coordinates and manages the various tasks needed • Containing several different components

Factors that affect W. Memory – Food and supplements • Dietary supplements – Biological

Factors that affect W. Memory – Food and supplements • Dietary supplements – Biological rhythms • Sleep – Emotion – Drugs & chemicals • Hormone therapy • Alcohol • Ecstasy • Other illegal drugs • PCBs – Clinical conditions • Multiple sclerosis • Head injury – Development • Prenatal factors • Language • Maths learning • Face recognition • Attention – Gender differences – Other

Research Results on Brain and Development ~August 2006 • August 2006 – – –

Research Results on Brain and Development ~August 2006 • August 2006 – – – • Exercise helps sustain mental activity as we age Copper increases cognitive decline in older adults on high-fat diet Novelty aids learning Most of the cognitive deficits associated with alcoholism recoverable Morbid obesity in toddlers linked to low IQ Childhood sleep apnea linked to brain damage, lower IQ Ingredient commonly found in shampoos may inhibit brain development Drug erases long-term memory Restoring flexibility to old brains Genetic variations that may be key to the evolution of the human brain July 2006 – – – – – Brain Imaging Identifies Best Memorization Strategies Curry helps older brains Vigorous exercise helps children's grades Drug reverses aging effect on memory process How multitasking impedes learning Sleep makes memories resistant to interference Support for labeling as an aid to memory Avoiding predators may be the reason for our large brains Bigger brains associated with domain-general intelligence Adapted from Science Magazine

Cognitive Process 感覺 知覺 Message A Message B Message C Message D B Limited

Cognitive Process 感覺 知覺 Message A Message B Message C Message D B Limited capacity decision Channel Attention Selective Filter STM & WM Long term memory Senses are the physiological methods of perception. Responses

感官刺激、淺層記憶、深層記憶與學習 感覺 知覺 Message A Message B Message C Message D B Selective Filter

感官刺激、淺層記憶、深層記憶與學習 感覺 知覺 Message A Message B Message C Message D B Selective Filter Limited capacity decision Channel Attention 用過即丟 STM & WM Long term memory Senses are the physiological methods of perception. Responses 內涵