ATTACHMENT DISORDERS EDUCATION OUTCOMES By Ashley Day Attachment

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ATTACHMENT DISORDERS & EDUCATION OUTCOMES By: Ashley Day

ATTACHMENT DISORDERS & EDUCATION OUTCOMES By: Ashley Day

Attachment Arousal Cycle Child feels comforted (in a calm regulated state) Child feels a

Attachment Arousal Cycle Child feels comforted (in a calm regulated state) Child feels a need (discomfort, hunger, lack of attention) Trust + Security = Attachment Needs are regularly met (child begins to calm) Child expresses a need (arousal/protes t cries escalate) (Ainsworth, 1978) (Main, 1985)

The Child Who Missed Out Child gives up or self-soothes ( no trust develops,

The Child Who Missed Out Child gives up or self-soothes ( no trust develops, cannot regulate, gives up… who cares? ) Child feels a need (discomfort, hunger, lack of attention) No trust+ No Security= No Attachment Needs are not met regularly (Help only comes sometimes or not at all) Child expresses a need (arousal/protest cries escalate, child waits… and waits) (Ainsworth, 1978) (Main, 1985)

Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) • Bonding disorder • Unhealthy bonding *Characterized by difficulties in

Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) • Bonding disorder • Unhealthy bonding *Characterized by difficulties in forming loving, lasting relationships (Chapman, 2002)

Causes of RAD According to the Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter (2013),

Causes of RAD According to the Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter (2013), Reactive attachment disorder is cause by abuse or neglect of an infant’s need for: • Emotional bonds • Food • Physical safety • Touching

Symptoms of RAD • Avoids caregiver • Avoids physical contact • Difficult to comfort

Symptoms of RAD • Avoids caregiver • Avoids physical contact • Difficult to comfort • Resists social interaction • Wants to be alone • Does not make distinctions when socializing with strangers (Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 2013)

Why are we concerned as social workers? • Children form attachments with a caregiver

Why are we concerned as social workers? • Children form attachments with a caregiver • Learn about themselves through interactions with mother • Crucial in early development • Determines function later in life (Taft et al. , 2015)

Continued… • Recognition & diagnosis is difficult • Treatment strategies are difficult to implement

Continued… • Recognition & diagnosis is difficult • Treatment strategies are difficult to implement • school social workers are in an excellent position to provide multisystem interventions focusing on family, school, and community collaboration (Shaw, 2007)

How is it assessed? • Comprehensive psychiatric assessment • Individualized treatment plan (Brown University

How is it assessed? • Comprehensive psychiatric assessment • Individualized treatment plan (Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 2013)

Impact on school • Speech/ language difficulties • Processing problems • Lack of conscience

Impact on school • Speech/ language difficulties • Processing problems • Lack of conscience (appropriate for development) (Ainsworth, 1978) (Main, 1985)

Impact on family system… • Shows aspect of parenting is lacking • Behaviors of

Impact on family system… • Shows aspect of parenting is lacking • Behaviors of the child with RAD; o such as superficial charm o severe tantrums o low intelligence o intentional destruction of property o age-inappropriate sexual acting out o physical aggression toward adults o profanity o difficulty adjusting to change o running away o Sociopathic tendencies o toileting accidents (Shaw, 2007)

References Attachment disorders. (2014). American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 85. Retrieved from

References Attachment disorders. (2014). American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 85. Retrieved from http: //www. aacap. org/ Ainsworth, M. D. , Blehar, M. C. , & Waters, E. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Chapman, S. (2002). Reactive attachment disorder. British Journal Of Special Education, 29(2), 91. Comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. (2005). American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52. Retrieved from www. aacap. org Main, M. , Kaplan, N. , & Cassidy, J. (1985). SECURITY IN INFANCY, CHILDHOOD, AND ADULTHOOD: A MOVE TO THE LEVEL OF REPRESENTATION. Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development, 50(1/2), 66 -104. doi: 10. 1111/1540 -5834. ep 11889989 Reactive Attachment Disorder: What Parents and Caregivers Should Know. (2013). Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 291 -2. Shaw, S. R. , & Páez, D. (2007). Reactive Attachment Disorder: Recognition, Action, and Considerations for School Social Workers. Children & Schools, 29(2), 69 -74. Taft, R. J. , Ramsay, C. M. , & Schlein, C. (2015). HOME AND SCHOOL EXPERIENCES OF CARING FOR CHILDREN WITH REACTIVE ATTACHMENT DISORDER. Journal Of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research, 9(3), 237 -246.