ATLAS P Morettini ATLAS Collaboration ATLAS Detector status

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ATLAS P. Morettini - ATLAS Collaboration ATLAS Detector: status and upgrade plans Paolo Morettini

ATLAS P. Morettini - ATLAS Collaboration ATLAS Detector: status and upgrade plans Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 1

ATLAS Outline In this talk, we will briefly review the performance of the ATLAS

ATLAS Outline In this talk, we will briefly review the performance of the ATLAS detector in its present configuration and we will illustrate the upgrade plan: ATLAS performance 2010 -2012 Motivations for the upgrade Phase 0 upgrade – LS 1 i. e. now Phase 1 upgrade – LS 2 – 2018 -2019 Phase 2 upgrade – LS 3 – 2022 -2023 An obvious disclaimer: experience teaches us that many things can change in ten years, so, especially for Phase 2, there are many unknowns (from the scientific and also from the financial point of view) that can modify our plans. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 2

ATLAS Performance The ATLAS Detector Muon Detector Tile Calorimeter Liquid Argon calorimeter Muon spectrometer

ATLAS Performance The ATLAS Detector Muon Detector Tile Calorimeter Liquid Argon calorimeter Muon spectrometer 3 Inner Level Detector Trigger (ID) system Calorimeter system m tracking Tracking EM and Hadronic energy • L 1 – hardware – drift 100 k. Hz MDT (Monitored 2. 5 Silicon ms Ar latency Pixels x 400 mm 2 • Liquid (LAr)50 EM barrel tubes) • L 2 Silicon –end-cap software Strips (SCT) –Strip 3 -4 k. Hz and CSC (Cathode 80 ms mm latency stereo end-cap • 10 LAr Hadronic Chambers) • Tile EF Transition –calorimeter software Radiation – Plate 100–Hz 1(Fe RPC (Resistive 2 Tracker s latency (TRT) up to 36 scintillator) hadronic Chamber) Trigger points/track • barrel TGC (Thin Gas Chamber) • Trigger 2 T Solenoid Magnet • Toroid Magnet Solenoid Magnet Paolo Morettini - i. Wo. RID 2012 SCT 4/7/2012 Pixel Detector TRT 3

ATLAS Performance ATLAS Trigger and DAQ 108 channels on-detector (40 MHz readout) L 1

ATLAS Performance ATLAS Trigger and DAQ 108 channels on-detector (40 MHz readout) L 1 trigger – 100 k. Hz – 25 us Then extraction from detector to readout system L 2 trigger – 10 k. Hz – 20 ms On L 1 selected geometrical regions. Software. Event Filter – 400 Hz – 2 s Software. Paolo Morettini 6/5/2013 4

ATLAS Performance LHC Performance 2010 -2012 2011 2010 LHC performed extremely well in the

ATLAS Performance LHC Performance 2010 -2012 2011 2010 LHC performed extremely well in the three years of the first run. In 2012, peak luminosity has been systematically above 7 10 33 cm -2 s-1 Total accumulated luminosity was 23. 3 fb-1, enough to firmly establish the Higgs discovery and its basic parameters. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 5

ATLAS Performance 2010 -2012 ATLAS performance was as well satisfactory, with an average data

ATLAS Performance 2010 -2012 ATLAS performance was as well satisfactory, with an average data taking efficiency exceeding 93% and a fraction of active channels of 95% It is important to note that most of 2012 data was taken with an average number of pile-up events per crossing around 35, due to the 50 ns spacing. A data-taking environment more challenging than the one expected at design luminosity and 25 ns spacing. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 6

ATLAS Performance Trigger performance The ATLAS trigger system demonstrated to be robust and flexible

ATLAS Performance Trigger performance The ATLAS trigger system demonstrated to be robust and flexible enough to follow the rapid LHC luminosity increase maintaining full efficiency. Many algorithms (more than 500 trigger items) were developed to guarantee optimal selection. Stability vs pile-up was a concern, but no problem observed so far. Single e, Et > 25 Ge. V Efficiency vs pile-up Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 7

ATLAS Motivations for the upgrade Higgs physics perspectives As recognized in the recent European

ATLAS Motivations for the upgrade Higgs physics perspectives As recognized in the recent European Strategy symposium, the priority after the consolidation of the Higgs discovery is to obtain precise measurement of the parameters of the new particle: Mass and width Quantum numbers Couplings and self-coupling Comparison with the SM LHC has been recognized as the natural facility to complete these studies, but obviously an increase in luminosity would significantly enhance the achievable precision. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 8

ATLAS Motivations for the upgrade Beyond the Standard Model An increase in luminosity would

ATLAS Motivations for the upgrade Beyond the Standard Model An increase in luminosity would as well be beneficial to extend the range of the searches for SUSY particle and for other “exotic” processes. SUSY particles at HL-LHC 3 Te. V for squarks ~ 2. 5 Te. V for gluinos 400 Ge. V rise in sensitivity wrt the L=300 fb-1 case ttbar resonances at HL-LHC 6. 7 Te. V L=3000 fb-1 leptons + jets 5. 6 Te. V L=3000 fb-1 dileptons 4. 3 Te. V L=300 fb-1 leptons + jets 4 Te. V L=300 fb-1 dileptons Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 9

ATLAS Motivations for the upgrade LHC upgrade plan Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013

ATLAS Motivations for the upgrade LHC upgrade plan Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 10

ATLAS Motivations for the upgrade Based on the experience of the first LHC run,

ATLAS Motivations for the upgrade Based on the experience of the first LHC run, we can say that ATLAS as is can successfully operate at 1034 cm-2 s-1 and possibly more. However, the ultimate goal of accumulating 3000 fb-1 in more than 15 years at 5 x 1034 cm-2 s-1 requires some intervention: Several detectors, especially close to the beam line, will be damaged by the accumulated dose The large number of interactions per crossing (<m> up to 140) will saturate read-out links and generate large occupancies. A more and more selective trigger will be necessary to efficiently isolate the few interesting events 1033 cm-2 s-1 5 1034 cm-2 s-1 Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 11

ATLAS Phase 0 ATLAS detector upgrade plan LS 1 ↠ PHASE 0 ℒ =

ATLAS Phase 0 ATLAS detector upgrade plan LS 1 ↠ PHASE 0 ℒ = 1034 cm-2 s-1 <m>=24 100 fb-1 (2014 -2017) • Installation of the 4 th Pixel Detector Layer • Pixel Detector improvements • DBM beam monitor • Silicon tracker cooling system replacement • Muon EE chambers completion • • LS 2 ↠ PHASE 1 ℒ = 2 x 1034 cm-2 s-1 <m>=50 350 fb-1 (2019 -2021) New Muon Small Wheel detector Upgrade of the central L 1 trigger processor Topological L 1 triggers L 1 Calo granularity increase • • • LS 3 ↠ PHASE 2 ℒ =5 x 1034 cm-2 s 1<m>=140 3000 fb-1 (2023 -2030) New “All Silicon” tracker New L 0 -L 1 trigger schema Inclusion of track info at L 1 Upgrade of the calorimeter readout Upgrade of the muon spetrometer In Progress… Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 12

ATLAS Phase 0 Replacement of service distribution panels, to cure malfunctioning channels, increase accessibility

ATLAS Phase 0 Replacement of service distribution panels, to cure malfunctioning channels, increase accessibility and bandwidth. Installation of a 4 th layer (IBL), close to the beam pipe. New SQP (33 -38 mm from the beam line). IBL setup Need to cure progressive radiation damage and mitigate inefficiencies due to pile-up effects. Two substantial interventions are in progress during LS 1: “old” Beam Pipe R = 29 mm Pixel detector upgrade 31 -40 mm 25 mm Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 13

ATLAS Phase 0 IBL technologies Originally thought as a LS 2 intervention, the Pixel

ATLAS Phase 0 IBL technologies Originally thought as a LS 2 intervention, the Pixel upgrade was anticipated to guarantee a more robust tracking system and a less radioactive working environment. New technologies prototyping Phase 2 upgrade: New FE chip (FE-I 4) in 130 nm CMOS, with smaller cells (50 x 250 mm 2) and faster output links Pixel Read-out inefficiency vs LHC Luminosity b-tagging rejection FE-I 3 vs FE-I 4 pile-up With IBL Without IBL Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 14

ATLAS Phase 0 IBL technologies Originally thought as a LS 2 intervention, the Pixel

ATLAS Phase 0 IBL technologies Originally thought as a LS 2 intervention, the Pixel upgrade was anticipated to guarantee a more robust tracking system and a less radioactive working environment. New technologies prototyping Phase 2 upgrade: New FE chip (FE-I 4) in 130 nm CMOS, with smaller cells (50 x 250 mm 2) and faster output links 3 D sensors in the forward region (lower bias voltage, immunity to bulk defects), planar, slim edge, n-in-n in the central region. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 15

ATLAS Phase 0 More LS 1 interventions… As a part of the IBL installation,

ATLAS Phase 0 More LS 1 interventions… As a part of the IBL installation, we will replace the beam pipe: the central part will be in beryllium, the outer part in aluminium. The evaporative cooling system of Pixel and Strips will be replaced. More Muon End-cap Extension chambers (EE) will be installed, to improve coverage in the 1. 0 < |n| < 1. 3 region. EE Add specific neutron shielding Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) diamond pixel detector with IBL readout Then, in this long shutdown, as in the following ones, many small interventions will be performed here and there to cure problems that cannot be addressed in a regular shutdown or to replace obsolete components (e. g. power supplies, readout elements, …) Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 16

ATLAS Phase 1 ATLAS detector upgrade plan LS 1 ↠ PHASE 0 ℒ =

ATLAS Phase 1 ATLAS detector upgrade plan LS 1 ↠ PHASE 0 ℒ = 1034 cm-2 s-1 <m>=24 100 fb-1 (2014 -2017) • Installation of the 4 th Pixel Detector Layer • Pixel Detector improvements • DBM beam monitor • Silicon tracker cooling system replacement • Muon EE chambers completion • • LS 2 ↠ PHASE 1 ℒ = 2 x 1034 cm-2 s-1 <m>=50 350 fb-1 (2019 -2021) New Muon Small Wheel detector Upgrade of the central L 1 trigger processor Topological L 1 triggers L 1 Calo granularity increase • • • LS 3 ↠ PHASE 2 ℒ =5 x 1034 cm-2 s 1<m>=140 3000 fb-1 (2023 -2030) New “All Silicon” tracker New L 0 -L 1 trigger schema Inclusion of track info at L 1 Upgrade of the calorimeter readout Upgrade of the muon spetrometer Preparing TDR Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 17

ATLAS Phase 1 Muon Small Wheel upgrade The innermost layer of the muon endcap

ATLAS Phase 1 Muon Small Wheel upgrade The innermost layer of the muon endcap is extremely sensitive to beam background. While working fine at the moment, the existing detector would produce an excessive fake L 1 rate at luminosities above 1034 cm-2 s-1. Will be replaced with a new detector with higher position resolution (100 mm) and direction reconstruction capability (1 mrad) to select tracks pointing to the primary vertex. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 18

ATLAS Phase 1 New Small Wheel impact From the detector technology point of view,

ATLAS Phase 1 New Small Wheel impact From the detector technology point of view, NSW will use two solutions: Small strip Thin Gas Chambers (s. TGC) for L 1 trigger Micromegas (MM) for precision tracking The new detector will ensure a strong reduction of single muon rates with a reasonable safety margin up to 5 x 1034 cm-2 s-1 s. TGC MM s. TGC Muon L 1 Rates vs pt threshold NOW with NSW x 3 reduction for p. T(μ)>20 Ge. V at 1034 cm‐ 2 s‐ 1 Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 19

ATLAS Phase 1 Calorimetric trigger The granularity of the EM L 1 trigger will

ATLAS Phase 1 Calorimetric trigger The granularity of the EM L 1 trigger will be increased, to exploit shower longitudinal and transvers shape. Better electron-jet separation will be achievable. Will allow un-prescaled single electron triggers at Et ~ 25 Ge. V above 1034 cm-2 s-1 Together with an update of the central L 1 trigger processor, topological L 1 triggers will be available. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 20

ATLAS Phase 1 FTK is a track trigger processor. It can produce tracks with

ATLAS Phase 1 FTK is a track trigger processor. It can produce tracks with a quality similar to the off-line in ~25 ms. Based on CDF experience Pattern recognition is done using associative memories, track fit with a FPGA processor. In ATLAS, FTK uses L 2 trigger data, but the output is ready at the beginning of L 2 software processing. Better HLT algorithms for btagging, t identification and lepton isolation will be available. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 21

ATLAS Phase 2 ATLAS detector upgrade plan LS 1 ↠ PHASE 0 ℒ =

ATLAS Phase 2 ATLAS detector upgrade plan LS 1 ↠ PHASE 0 ℒ = 1034 cm-2 s-1 <m>=24 100 fb-1 (2014 -2017) • Installation of the 4 th Pixel Detector Layer • Pixel Detector improvements • DBM beam monitor • Silicon tracker cooling system replacement • Muon EE chambers completion • • LS 2 ↠ PHASE 1 ℒ = 2 x 1034 cm-2 s-1 <m>=50 350 fb-1 (2019 -2021) New Muon Small Wheel detector Upgrade of the central L 1 trigger processor Topological L 1 triggers L 1 Calo granularity increase • • • LS 3 ↠ PHASE 2 ℒ =5 x 1034 cm-2 s 1<m>=140 3000 fb-1 (2023 -2030) New “All Silicon” tracker New L 0 -L 1 trigger schema Inclusion of track info at L 1 Upgrade of the calorimeter readout Upgrade of the muon spetrometer Lo. I submitted Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 22

ATLAS Phase 2 New “All Silicon” tracker To face the challenge of HL LHC

ATLAS Phase 2 New “All Silicon” tracker To face the challenge of HL LHC ATLAS will need a new tracker: Progressive radiation damage will make the old detector inefficient More granularity and more bandwidth is needed to operate at 5 x 1034 cm-2 s-1, due to the large pileup. The layout proposed in the Lo. I provides 14 points/track to |n| < 2. 7 Pixel: 4 layers + 5 disks, 25 x 150 (in) / 50 x 150 (out) mm 2 Strips: 5 layers + 7 disks stereo Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 23

ATLAS Phase 2 Tracker layout Clearly there are many options under investigation, and the

ATLAS Phase 2 Tracker layout Clearly there are many options under investigation, and the details of the tracker layout will be fixed later. The challenge is always the same: Produce a mechanical support with the best possible thermal and mechanical characteristics and, at the same time, as light as possible. Find room and power dissipation capabilities for the on-detector electronics and the links needed to transmit the enormous amount of data. Present estimate 2500 -3000 lp. GBT links at 9. 6 Gb/s Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 24

ATLAS Phase 2 TDAQ upgrade One interesting possibility open by the complete redesign of

ATLAS Phase 2 TDAQ upgrade One interesting possibility open by the complete redesign of the tracker and by modern data transmission technologies is the inclusion of tracks at L 1. This requires, however, some deep modification of the trigger strategy, as it is impossible to build tracks at full rate in few ms. The idea is to use a calorimetric and muon pre-trigger (called L 0) to select events were tracks will be reconstructed. L 0 signal will be sent only to tracker modules in selected space regions. Level-0 Rate 500 k. Hz, Lat. 6 ms Muon + Calo Level-1 Rate 200 k. Hz, Lat. 20 ms Muon + Calo + Tracks Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 25

ATLAS Phase 2 Calorimeter upgrade No upgrade is required for the EM and Hadronic

ATLAS Phase 2 Calorimeter upgrade No upgrade is required for the EM and Hadronic calorimeter to run at HL LHC. The FE electronics (both LAr and Tile) needs however to be replaced. The idea is to move off-detector data from each collision (no on-detector buffering) and do L 0, L 1 processing off detector. Hadronic endcap is designed for 1000 fb-1. A replacement is considered. Forward calorimeter (3. 2 < |n| < 4. 9) may have overheating problems at high luminosities. A complete new system could be installed or just a new calorimeter in front of the existing one. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 26

ATLAS Phase 2 Muon spectrometer upgrade New trigger chambers Extra layers with more resolution

ATLAS Phase 2 Muon spectrometer upgrade New trigger chambers Extra layers with more resolution High resolution forward chambers Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 27

ATLAS Summary A sophisticated apparatus like ATLAS needs constant care to operate efficiently. This

ATLAS Summary A sophisticated apparatus like ATLAS needs constant care to operate efficiently. This is even more true if optimal performance has to be maintained over 20 years with a luminosity increase of a factor of 5 (and possibly more) compared to the original design. ATLAS has a three stage upgrade plan, following the LHC upgrade, with the emphasis on: Replacing detectors damaged by radiation or saturated by the luminosity increase. Add flexibility and discrimination capability to the trigger system and bandwidth to the readout. Replace obsolete components with newer and more maintainable technologies. Paolo Morettini - ICNFP 2013 3/9/2013 28