- Slides: 18
Athens: Model of Democracy and Education
Athens ► Athens was a polis in ancient Greece § A polis is _____________. ► The people of Athens were generally peaceful, educated and interested in democracy. ► Athenians valued learning over fighting.
A Nation of Thinkers ► Athenians lived northeast of Sparta ► Athens is built in a hilly area close to the sea; its Acropolis is built on a hill in the middle of the city Acropolis
Their patroness, Athena ► Ancient Greeks believed each polis had a god or goddess who protected them ► Athens was protected by Athena, the goddess of wisdom ► Athena’s temple was the center of the Acropolis
Their patroness, Athena (cont. ) • Favorite daughter of Zeus • Goddess of wisdom, warfare and craft
Athena (Story of her birth) ► Following the battle between the Titans and the Olympian gods Zeus, king of the gods, lay with the Titaness Metis (whose name literally means wisdom or deep thought). ► When Metis fell pregnant, her parents (Oceanus and Tithys) told Zeus that their child would have bravery and wisdom to rival his own, provoking Zeus to transform Metis into a fly and swallow her in order to prevent the birth of such a powerful, possibly threatening, child.
►Soon it was said that Zeus suffered an unbearable headache and asked his son, Hephaistos, to cut his skull open to discover the source of the pain. Hephaistos did so, revealing the fully-grown and armed goddess Athena, who sprung from her father's head brandishing her spear ready to join them in battle. ►
Athens Government ► At first, the leaders in Athens were cruel to the common people. Eventually leaders like Solon, Peisistratus and Cleisthenes changed the way they led their people. ► Athens became a direct democracy. § A direct democracy is __________. § Cleisthenes developed democracy Democracy derives from the ancient Greek word “demokratia”: demos = the people kratien = to rule
How did the direct democracy work? ► In Athens, there were about 43, 000 male citizens, but 6, 000 or less attended the meetings which were held every 10 days. ► The meetings were led by generals who recorded decisions. The meetings could be very loud and fights often broke out!
Daily life in Athens ► Athens was the biggest polis in Greece with 290, 000 people. ► Slavery was a normal part of ancient Greece ► Most Athenian homes had at least 1 slave ► Slaves did all the housework as well as tutoring and working in shops ► Social classes included: § aristocrats(rich land owners) § small farmers § craftsmen and shop keepers. § foreigners § Slaves § Women
Making a living in Athens ► Farming was the way most Athenians made a living They grew grains, olives, grapes They also raised sheep and goats There was not enough farmland in Athens, so they had to buy grain from other city-states
Trade center of Greece ► Athens became the trade center of ancient Greece ► Traders came from all around to sell their goods and trade for others ► Artisans made fine jewelry, pottery, and statues Men • Worked in the morning outside the home • In the afternoon, they exercised or met with the assembly. • In the evenings, they gathered at men’s clubs to drink, eat and talk about politics.
School—no girls allowed! Only boys in Athens attended school; they left home at age 7 to do so ► It was extremely important for them to learn all subjects ► They had three teachers: 1. One taught reading, writing and math 2. Another taught sports 3. A third taught music and singing At age 18, they finished school and became citizens. They had to be native born and own land. ►
Women Not considered equals with men Were not citizens and could not vote ► Were under the control of their and husbands ► Could not own property or out alone; had to be accompanied male relative fathers by go
Home is where the girls were! Girls in Athens stayed at home ► They were very protected and learned how to sew, weave, take care of the house, etc. ► In some wealthy families, they were taught to read and write ► When girls married around age 14 -15, their lives revolved around their home and families ►
The Agora ► The agora was the marketplace in Athens. ► It was similar to a modern-day mall with shops that sold or traded anything you can imagine ► People came from all over Greece to trade
The Agora Today