- Slides: 25
Athens and Sparta • Two of the most powerful city-states in ancient Greece • Very different ways of life
Similarities • Both Athenians and Spartans used the Greek alphabet and spoke the Greek language • They practiced the same religion – polytheism focused on mythological gods and goddesses
Sparta’s military society • Sparta was full of fierce warriors! • Spartan society was dominated by the military – They believed that military power would provide security and protection for their city • Daily life revolved around the army • From a young age, both boys and girls trained to be healthy and strong! – Women were not allowed in the army, but they needed to be strong to have healthy babies.
Sparta’s military society • Strength was very important to the Spartans – If a baby boy was born unhealthy, he would be taken out of the city and left to die – Healthy babies were trained from an early age to be soldiers • Sparta focused on physical education and training for battle
Girls and Women in Sparta • Spartan women had more rights than other Greek women because the men were often away at war • Women received physical education – Running, jumping, wrestling, javelin throwing • Their main duty was to have healthy, strong babies
Government in Sparta • Government was an oligarchy, in which only a few people have the power to rule
CLICK ON THE PICTURE BELOW TO WATCH A SHORT VIDEO (4 minutes) ABOUT A SPARTAN BOY’S LIFE TRAINING TO BE A WARRIOR
ATHENIANS ADMIRE THE MIND! • Athenians valued education, thinking, and the arts • Many artists, writers, scientists, and philosophers came from Athens • Created the democracy, a type of government in which the people rule – This is their most important achievement!
Education in athens • • Boys learned to run, jump, and fight Learned reading, writing, and math Learned music and poetry Learned about Greek history and legends – Studied Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey • Wealthy families hired tutors to teach their boys about philosophy, geometry, astronomy, science, and public speaking • Men had to join the military for only 2 years unless there was a war
Girls and Women in athens • Girls were not educated in schools • Most were taught by their mothers – Household skills like weaving and sewing – Only some learned to read or write • Women had few rights and could not: – Vote or participate in government – Own property – Leave their homes except for special events
Government in Athens v A government is made of the people who have the power to rule over everyone else. v The people in the city of Athens in Greece created the first democracy, a type of government in which the people rule. § The Greek’s democracy influenced the modern government of the United States. v The people of Athens tried many different forms of government before creating a democracy.
Before Democracy v Athens was the city where democracy was born, but it started out as an oligarchy. v An oligarchy is a government in which only a few people have power. § A small group of wealthy people ruled. v Another type of government is a monarchy, in which one person, usually a king or queen, has the power to rule.
DEMOCRACY v Eventually, the citizens of Athens created a democratic form of government. v Greek root words § Demos means, “the people” § Kratos means “power” or “to rule” § Democracy means “the people rule” or “the people have the power” v Democracy is the greatest achievement of ancient Athens and the Greeks’ greatest gift to the world
Ancient democracy was different than modern democracy. • Only free male citizens of Athens could vote – no slaves, women, or foreigners! • All these citizens could participate directly in the government, which was called a direct democracy. • Each vote counted, and the majority ruled. • The United States is too large for direct democracy to work for the whole country. • Instead, we have a representative democracy. • In a representative democracy, also called a republic, citizens elect officials to represent them in the government. These officials then make the laws. • This is the type of government that we have in the United States today!
When you see the word “democracy”, think Greece!
Totalitarianism is a form of government that uses force and power to rule a people. This form of culture had its roots in the ancient Greek citystate of Sparta. Within Sparta there existed three groups: slaves, known as Helots; Spartan females, who were taught to be fit, brave, and patriotic; and Spartan males, all of whom became warriors. Newborn males judged to be weak were left to die of exposure. At the age of seven, boys left home to live in barracks and receive military training from older boys. Boys went barefoot, wore minimal clothing (even in winter), practiced all forms of athletics, and received military instruction. They married at age 20 but continued to live in the barracks. The Helots provided the necessary food and labor for Spartan males and females.
The democratic political system used as its model Athenian democracy. In the ancient Greek citystate of Athens all citizens participated in Athenian governmental activities. All citizens were equal before the law and participated in the government. Slaves and women, however, were not allowed citizenship. Athenians eventually abolished slavery and developed a direct democracy where citizens chose the members of the powerful Assembly. Athenian youth were encouraged to develop artistic and intellectual talents to such a degree that historians refer to their developments in the arts and politics as a "Golden Age. "
"The fundamental motif through all the centuries has been the principle that force and power are the determining factors. All development is struggle. Only force rules. Force is the first law. . Only through struggle have states and the world become great. If one should ask whether this struggle is gruesome, then the only answer could be—for the weak, yes, for humanity as a whole, no. Instead of everlasting struggle, the world preaches cowardly pacifism, and everlasting peace. These three things, considered in the light of their ultimate consequences, are the causes of the downfall of all humanity. "
"We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, * that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. "