- Slides: 21
ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF TAP WATER IN THE EASTERN REGION Presenters: Humphrey Darko Dr. Osmund Ansa-Asare (Environmental Chemistry Division) Mark Akrong (EBHD) Mid-Year Review Seminar: 17/07/2014
Project Team § Humphrey Darko § Mark Akrong § Dr. Ansa-Asare § Anthony Karikari § Jude Quansah § Murijinatu Abdul-Hamid
Presentation Outline § Introduction § Objective § Methodology § Results and Discussion § Conclusions and Recommendations
Introduction § It is important to monitor water that is intended to be consumed for constituents which may pose a potential health risk to human health. § Even when drinking water sources have been subjected to treatment and disinfection, it is essential that routine examination of the supply is carried out at weekly, or even daily intervals where the population at risk is large (Chapman, 1996).
§ Introduction The Public Utilities Regulatory Commission (PURC) contracted the CSIR Water Research Institute (CSIR-WRI) to undertake an independent assessment of the quality of tap water in the Eastern Region in the month of April 2013. Some Districts were selected for the investigation. § § § Nsawam Adoagyire Municipal, (Nsawam) Suhum/Kraboa/Coaltar District, (Suhum) New Juaben Municipal, (Koforidua) Kwahu West Municipal, (Nkawkaw) Kwahu South District, (Mpraeso) West Akim Municipal (Asamakese) East Akim District (Akim –Tafo) Kwaebibirem District (Kade) Birim Central Municipal (Akim-Oda) Akwapim South District (Aburi) Akwapim North Municipal (Akropong) The assessment involved physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters of tap used by consumers.
Objective of the Study § The objective of the study was to investigate the quality of tap water consumed in the Eastern Region, to determine its suitability for drinking.
Methodology-Sampling § Field visits were made to 43 sampling locations. § Samples were collected and brought to CSIR-WRI § Labs in Accra for analysis. The samples were collected from: § § § Public standpipes Secondary Schools Hospitals Regional Minister’s Residence Private homes Few Boreholes
Methodology- sampling PSP at Nkawkaw Kwawu Tafo Sec Sch Akim-Oda Sec Sch. Kitchen Kwahu Tafo Booster Station
Methodology- sampling K’dua Cent. Hospital Kitchen Reg. Min. Residence, K’dua, Kitchen
Map of sample locations in the ER.
Results and discussion § Key Physico-chemical parameters: § § § p. H, Turbidity, Conductivity, TDS, TSS, Total Hardness; Nutrients (NO 3 -N, PO 4 -P); Major Ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO 3 -, SO 42 -); Metals (Fe, Mn); Chlorine Residual. § Key Bateriological Parameters: (TC, FC, E. coli, THB) § The quality of the water was assessed in relation to World Health Organisation guideline values for drinking water (WHO, 2006)
Results and discussion - p. H
Results and discussions - Turbidity §Represents both aesthetic and health problem §High turbidity in drinking water will make it objectionable. §Turbidity can provide food and shelter for pathogens. §If not removed, turbidity can promote regrowth of pathogens in the distribution system, leading to waterborne disease outbreaks, eg. Gastroenteritis USEPA, 1999).
Results and discussion – Total Hardness §Makes water unable to lather well with soap. §Deposits scales on surfaces of cooking utensils used in the household for heating, eg. saucepans, Kettles. §WHO guideline is 500 mg/l. Ca. CO 3.
Results and discussion
Results and discussion - Chlorine Residual §To ensure that drinking water is free of diseasecausing microorganisms, chlorine residual should be maintained in the distribution system. §It is required to range between 0. 1 mg/l to 0. 2 mg/l at consumers tap.
Results and discussion- Bacteriological
Conclusions and Recommendations § Physico-chemical quality: § Except low p. H and low Free Cl which were observed in few of the waters, levels of the other physicochemical parameters in the waters were satisfactory to make the waters suitable for drinking. § Bacteria quality: § The bacteria quality of the waters, however, were found to be poor due to presence of bacteria counts in most of the waters. It is therefore advised that water from the tap should be boiled to kill off any probable bacteria before used for drinking.
Conclusions and Recommendations § Nsawam Adoagyire Municpal, Kwahu West Municipal, Kwahu South Dist. , were seen to be poorest with regard to bacterial quality. § It is recommended that re-chlorination should be done frequently at the booster stations to prevent any bacterial re-growth.
Conclusions and Recommendations § Regular monitoring of the quality of tap water in our distribution systems is necessary to ensure good quality of water to consumers.
§Thank you all