Assessing Reading Contents Reading strategies Types of reading

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Assessing Reading

Assessing Reading

Contents ¡ Reading strategies ¡ Types of reading tasks Perceptive l Selective l Interactive

Contents ¡ Reading strategies ¡ Types of reading tasks Perceptive l Selective l Interactive l Extensive l ¡ Summary ¡ Dictocomp ¡ Strip story

Reading Strategies (1) ¡ Bottom-up processing (decoding) which employs micro-skills Discrimination of graphemes &

Reading Strategies (1) ¡ Bottom-up processing (decoding) which employs micro-skills Discrimination of graphemes & orthographic patterns l Recognition & interpretation of words, word classes, patterns, rules, etc. l Cohesive devices l Making use of formal schema to decode the written text l

Reading Strategies (2) ¡ Top-down processing which employs macro-skills l Recognition of rhetorical forms

Reading Strategies (2) ¡ Top-down processing which employs macro-skills l Recognition of rhetorical forms and communicative functions l Using background knowledge to make inferences l Scanning and skimming, guessing meaning of words from context, activating relevant schemata

Types of Reading Tasks (1) ¡ Perceptive: l Bottom-up processing l Decoding letters, words,

Types of Reading Tasks (1) ¡ Perceptive: l Bottom-up processing l Decoding letters, words, graphemic symbols, etc. l Reading aloud, picture-cued word or sentence identification, etc. (Brown 190 -93)

Types of Reading Tasks (2) o Selective: l. A combo of bottom-up and topdown

Types of Reading Tasks (2) o Selective: l. A combo of bottom-up and topdown processing l Formal (lexical and grammatical) aspects of language l Formats including multiple-choice, matching, gap-filling

Types of Reading Tasks (3) ¡ Interactive: Top-down processing (with some instances of bottom-up)

Types of Reading Tasks (3) ¡ Interactive: Top-down processing (with some instances of bottom-up) l More lengthy reading where the reader must interact with the text l A process of negotiating meaning l Both form-focused and meaning-focused (but more emphasis on meaning comprehension) l Cloze, comprehension Qs, editing, short answers, scanning, ordering, info. transfer (graphics interpretation) l

Types of Reading Tasks (4) ¡ Extensive: l Top-down processing l Global understanding of

Types of Reading Tasks (4) ¡ Extensive: l Top-down processing l Global understanding of a text l Skimming, summarizing and responding, note-taking and outlining

Summary ¡ Types of reading by length (short, medium, long), focus (form and meaning),

Summary ¡ Types of reading by length (short, medium, long), focus (form and meaning), and process (bottom-up vs. topdown) (see Brown 190)

Dictocomp ¡A variation on the traditional dictation procedure T reads while Ss listen carefully

Dictocomp ¡A variation on the traditional dictation procedure T reads while Ss listen carefully l Ss write a summary (not word for word as in dictation) l Decide scoring criteria (Bailey 151) l ¡ Rationale: Meaning-oriented l Conveying & capturing meaning = key component of communication l

Communicative Language Teaching Around 1980 s ¡ 4 principles of communicative lang. test design:

Communicative Language Teaching Around 1980 s ¡ 4 principles of communicative lang. test design: ¡ l l Start from somewhere: assessment should be based on sound theoretical principles Concentrate on content ¡ l Bias for best: to elicit best possible performance ¡ l Appropriate topics and tasks in terms of the age, proficiency level, interests, and goals of the learners E. g. , can use a dictionary when writing dictocomp Work for washback: promote positive washback

Strip Story A speaking/listening activity in which every student is given a strip of

Strip Story A speaking/listening activity in which every student is given a strip of paper with one sentence (or portion of a sentence) from a story written on it. ¡ Procedure: ¡ l l Every S memorizes his sentence. Each S says his sentence. Group sorts out the order. Ss negotiate the sentence order to reconstruct the story.