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Asia Section 1
Section 1 Asia South Asia after Empire Preview • Starting Points Map: Asia • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Independence and Conflict • Map: Religious Groups in India and Pakistan • India after Independence • Challenges in South Asia
Asia Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Section 1
Section 1 Asia South Asia after Empire Main Idea India gained its independence from Great Britain, but the region entered an era of conflict and challenges. Reading Focus • What events led to independence and conflict in India? • What happened to India after the nation won its independence? • What challenges face the countries of South Asia?
Section 1 Asia Independence and Conflict Great Britain had controlled India for nearly two hundred years, but by the early 1900 s the British control of the region was starting to weaken. At the same time, religious tensions were pulling India apart. Nationalism Grows INC and War • Movement for independence gained strength in early 1900 s • British told Indians to fight for allies in World War II • By mid-1930 s Indian National Congress, Mohandas Gandhi had won some selfrule for Indians • Forced to participate in war for democracy while being denied independence, INC refused to support war effort Quit India • Gandhi began “Quit India” campaign • British imprisoned Gandhi, INC officials • Riots erupted • Convinced British maintaining control of India too costly
Section 1 Asia Religious Conflict and Partition Religious Groups • India had long had two main religious groups: Hindus, Muslims • 1940, home to 255 million Hindus, 92 million Muslims • Smaller numbers of Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists Muslim Fears • As hopes for Indian independence rose, so did religious tensions • Some Muslims feared large Hindu population would dominate independent democratic India, wanted separate nation to protect their rights Muslim League • Muhammad Ali Jinnah led Muslim League, worked for interests of India’s Muslims • 1940, Muslim League called for a partition, division of India, creation of separate Muslim, Hindu countries
Section 1 Asia British Favored Partition Violence Increased Two New Nations • Gandhi strongly opposed division of India, little he could do • Great Britain formally ended colonial rule of India, August 1947 • Violence between Muslims, Hindus increased during early 1940 s • Two new nations created: Muslim East and West Pakistan, Hindu India • British leaders believed partition best way to ensure safe, stable region • Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister: “A new star rises, the star of freedom in the East…” • Divided India into separate Hindu, Muslim nations
Asia Section 1
Asia Section 1 Violence After Partition • Division of India also divided religious groups living there • Most Pakistan residents Muslim; most in India were Hindu • Followers of other religions lived in each new country as well • Millions of people on each side decided to move Gandhi Victim of Violence • As millions crossed subcontinent, violence between religious groups flared; over a million people died • Gandhi also victim of bloodshed • January 1948, shot, killed by fellow Hindu who blamed Gandhi for partition, believed he sacrificed Hindu interests to protect Muslims
Section 1 Asia War over Kashmir • Not all border issues had been settled at partition • Major point of conflict, region of Kashmir, near northern border of India, Pakistan – India, Pakistan began to fight over control of Kashmir – Continued until 1949 cease-fire divided region into two parts, one controlled by each nation • Later China claimed control of part of Kashmir as well
Asia Section 1 Identify Cause and Effect How did India’s independence lead to conflict? Answer(s): When India gained independence, new nations were formed along religious lines, leading to conflicts between the groups.
Section 1 Asia India after Independence India became the world’s largest democracy when the nation won its independence in 1947. India Under Nehru Nonaligned Movement • Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru led India through difficult early years of independence • Under Nehru, India utilized modern science, technology to improve industry, agriculture • Emphasized need for unity, economic and social reforms, respect for democratic ideals • Played important role in formation of nonaligned movement during Cold War • Worked to increase legal rights of women, improve lives of poor, prevent discrimination • Focused on economic development instead of taking sides in the conflict
Section 1 Asia After Nehru • 1964, Nehru died; two years later, daughter Indira Gandhi elected prime minister; served four terms • Rise to power showed role of women in India society improved after independence • Faced challenge from a Sikh independence movement in state of Punjab Attack at Golden Temple • 1984, militant Sikhs occupied Golden Temple, holiest shrine • Gandhi ordered Indian troops to drive militants out of temple Gandhi Assassinated • Violent attack outraged many Sikhs, including those who had not supported militants • Hundreds of people killed • October 1984, Gandhi’s Sikh bodyguards assassinated her • Attack damaged temple, Sikh holy scriptures • Touched off wave of anti-Sikh violence, left thousands dead
Section 1 Asia Modern India Industrial Growth Prosperity and Poverty • 1990 s, India undertook reforms that have led to significant economic gains • Indian economy has grown at remarkable rate in recent years • Government loosened controls on many industries, reduced trade barriers to help encourage growth of new businesses • Although most Indians still work in agriculture, service industries have expanded rapidly • Strong economy has brought prosperity to only minority of country’s 1. 1 billion people • Millions live in poverty in crowded cities • Variety of charity groups work to provide clothing, food, medical aid to poor
Section 1 Asia Summarize How did India change after winning its independence? Answer(s): focused on economic development; increased rights for women and the poor; became the world's largest democracy
Section 1 Asia Challenges in South Asia The history of other nations in South Asia has been as turbulent as that of India. Today, those nations face a range of challenges. Civil War in Pakistan India Joins the Battle • 1947, Pakistan created in two parts, West and East • 1971, East Pakistan decided to seek independence • Separate areas, deep differences in language, religion, culture • Pakistani government responded with armed force • Government policies, spending favored West, East remained poor • Civil war followed, thousands of people died After India sent troops to support East Pakistan, Pakistan was forced to accept the independence of the East—now called Bangladesh.
Section 1 Asia Bangladesh and Pakistan Troubles in Bangladesh Instability in Pakistan • One of poorest, most densely populated countries in the world • Pakistan has also faced instability since civil war • Only a few feet above sea level, devastating floods, storms often sweep across country, killing many, leading to widespread famine • Ethnic, religious conflicts common • Series of governments since independence • Now trying to build stable democracy • Disagreements about role of Islam in government • Many leaders have taken power; some elected, some through military coups
Section 1 Asia Continuing Issues Musharraf • 1999, General Pervez Musharraf overthrew elected government, took power • Musharraf’s government has worked with U. S. to fight al Qaeda, Taliban in neighboring Afghanistan Nuclear Weapons • Relations between India, Pakistan usually tense • War near-constant threat • 1974, India’s testing of nuclear weapon caused alarm around world • 1998, after another Indian test, Pakistan tested own nuclear bomb • Threat of nuclear war has kept tensions high
Section 1 Asia Ethnic and Religious Tensions Conflict in Region • Region continues to experience powerful divisions, conflict • Based on religious, ethnic differences Sri Lanka • Ethnic fighting also plagues India’s neighbor, Sri Lanka • As Ceylon, island was British colony until late 1940 s Hindu, Muslim Hostility • Much stems from longstanding hostility between Hindus, Muslims • Continues to cause conflicts between India, Pakistan Ethnic Fighting • Fighting between Buddhist Sinhalese majority, Hindu Tamil minority killed thousands • Religious tension intensified struggle between ethnic groups
Asia Section 1 Identify Supporting Details What challenges do the nations of South Asia face today? Answer(s): poverty, religious and ethnic tensions, nuclear weapons, famine, political upheaval