- Slides: 40
Artificial Stupidity Paul Taylor 2010
Artificial • Fake!
Intelligence Latin: intelligere: - ‘to understand’ There are two general meanings derived from this, one by the APA, and a second by a group of intelligence researchers
APA “Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. ” Source: Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, 1996, AP, February
Mainstream Science on Intelligence “A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on", "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do” Source: Wall Street Journal, December, 1994
What is the essence of these statements? APA: “Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. ” Int Sci: “A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on", "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do”
The Difference Engine • 1822, Charles Babbage • It was a Polynomial Calculator • See LBP version http: //www. meccano. us/difference_engines/rde_1/DEFront. jpg
1837 The Analytical Engine • Effectively would have been a mechanical computer • Babbage worked on it till he died in 1871 • Work was abandoned in 1878
1950 The Turing Test
1990 The Loebner Prize
Neat and Scruffy AI
Neural Networks (Connectionism)
The Problem: Snails • A Snail has only 3 neurons!!! http: //idle. slashdot. org/story/10/06/01/13242 20/Snails-On-Methamphetamine
The CYC Project • This is a project designed to capture the commonsense of humanity, ambitious: YES • It currently contains x 00, 000’s of terms and millions of assertions. • The founder, Doug Lenat predicts that the project will need around 100 million assertions before it can begin ‘reading’ literature.
Video Game AI Steve Rabin (Game AI) provides 2 definitions: “Game AI is any technique that contributes to the perceived intelligence of an entity, regardless of what’s under the hood. ” “Techniques that generate artefacts that would normally be created by the game developers (like environment/layout, story, music, or models/animations/textures). ”
Video Game AI When was the first AI introduced to gaming?
Video Game AI When was the first AI introduced to gaming? It all depends on your classification of AI Space Invaders responded to the player input. . .
Hardcore vs Casual Tony Ventrice of Playdom http: //www. gamasutra. com/view/feature/614 3/evolving_the_social_game_finding_. php
6 factors of Hardcore games 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Difficult controls Overwhelming options Prerequisite knowledge Abstract memorization Unclear goals Unclear solutions
http: //www. gtagaming. com/images/gtaiv/controls/ps 3_vehicle. jpg Difficult Controls Welcome GTA IV Convoluted Controls Weird inexplicit timing
http: //www. therimofhell. com/wpcontent/uploads/2008/05/zombie-games. jpg
Overwhelming Options • Master of Orion 2 http: //www. spacesector. com /blog/wpcontent/uploads/2009/08/rac es_custom. jpg
http: //1. bp. blogspot. com/_v. Xr_LG 9 q. VWI/S 8 NVQ 83 Qn. I/AAAACUk/Yy 9 c. Zu 2 Eha 0/s 400/383577_5. jpg Prerequisite Gaming Knowledge • What happens when you pick up a new weapon? • Why does the block you keep destroying reappear? • Why doesn’t the door open? • What do you do with the key you found? • Press ‘c’ to crouch
Abstract Memorization • This refers to anything that is not obvious or intuitive to any person. ‘The Unreal link gun heals your vehicles’ ‘The stamina bar runs out when you run lots’ http: //www. mailorderexpress. com/shop/prdpi cs/140971. jpg
http: //static. howstuffworks. com/gif/gps-system-wrong-direction-2. jpg Unclear Goals • Figuring out what to do is a task for the hardcore gamer • Casual gamers would rather know what they are expected to do next • Implied goals are not good enough for casual gamers (13 / 26 Gems Collected) http: //games. adultswim. com/robot-unicornattack-twitchy-online-game. html
http: //www. far-q-designs. com/images/P/mensblackdyslexic. jpg Unclear Solutions • The Rubik's Cube - The Goal is clear - The solution is ? ? ? • Sam n Max has many unclear solutions • Hints can be used to help guide greener players http: //www. mouser. org/log/images/2007/pep pered_beef. jpg
6 factors of Casual Games 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Challenge Trial and Error Strategy Theme Repetition Depth / Graduated objectives
Challenge • Challenge is good, it’s not just hardcore – Players must feel challenged in all games • Increasing challenge (not changing challenge) is stereotypical of casual games • Does that make Space Invaders a casual game?
Trial and Error • Puzzles which can be solved this way are usable by casual players • The Nemesis is NOT a casual game • Did anyone play puzzledonkey? • Keeping risk low promotes trial-and-error gameplay • Higher risk requires more player investment
http: //gridironexperts. com/wpcontent/uploads/2010/06/FF 5. jpg Strategy • Strategy Games ARE hardcore – Comprise many complex strategies • Strategy is actually used in all games • Naughts and Crosses is played with different strategies, but there is only one good strategy • If there is no strategy there is no challenge no fun.
Theme • This is a little more abstract. . • Theme does NOT make a game hardcore or casual • Theme does define the segment of the audience your game will appeal to http: //www. tunariver. com/images/ultimatenature-theme-pack-all-themes-small. jpg
http: //tilings. math. uni-bielefeld. de/tilings/Files/faceit. gif Repetition • Casual players enjoy repetition – As long as the challenge is increasing • Hardcore = more changes, more frequently • Casual = less changes, less frequently • Hardcore & Casual = continual challenge increase
http: //en. wikivisual. com/images/3/36/Bathysc http: //www. whoi. edu/cms/images/currents_h rov_n 2_49158. jpg aphe_Trieste. jpg Depth / Graduated Objectives • In casual games, new challenges should only be introduced as the old challenges cease to be interesting
Warstory: - a Silverlight MMO http: //warstory. bigpoint. com/en
Inception. . The Game : -s • http: //www. gamasutra. com/view/news/3054 5/Inception_Director_Nolan_Looking_At_Spin off_Video_Game. php
The End • http: //www. gamasutra. com/view/feature/61 43/evolving_the_social_game_finding_. php