- Slides: 21
Argumentative Writing & The Crucible
What is an Argumentative Paper? 2 ¡According to OWL at Purdue, argumentative writing is “a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic, collect, generate, and evaluate evidence, and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. ” ¡Convince the reader that you are right
3 Argumentative Essays are NOT: ¡An absolute truth ¡A revelation or brand new insight ¡The last word ¡Bad-tempered complaining ¡An exercise in pure logic ¡A chance to prove that you’re smarter than everyone else
4 Elements of an Argumentative Essay ¡ Introduction: ¡ Hook ¡ Background Information ¡ Claim Statement ¡ Supporting Paragraphs (3 or more) ¡ ¡ ¡ Topic Sentence Context Explanation Evidential Support/ Quote Significance Explanation Transition Sentences ¡ Counterargument – within 3 rd body paragraph! ¡ Acknowledge the “other side” and refute ¡ Reassert Claim ¡ Conclusion ¡ Re-word Claim ¡ Answer “so what? ”
5 INTRODUCTION ¡Get your reader’s attention – Use a Hook! ¡Introduce your topic ¡Mention the title and author of the work (Miller, The Crucible) ¡Give a specific CLAIM as your last sentence, telling the reader exactly WHAT you will discuss in the upcoming body paragraphs
6 Hook/Attention-Getters ¡DON’T begin by telling us what your paper is going to be about ¡DO think of an interesting and creative way to begin discussion ¡ Try not to be cliché – no one wants to read a stale opening line! ¡Don’t bore your reader – I’m done…
¡BAD: The witch trials in The Crucible empower previously powerless women. ¡SO-SO: Webster’s Dictionary defines power as “the capacity to direct or influence the behavior of others or the course of events. ” ¡BEST: Power is a difficult concept to understand for it is multi-faceted in nature. Yet it is easy to identify when that power is seen in previously powerless persons. 7
Power is a difficult concept to Attention-Getter 8 understand for it is multi-faceted in nature. Yet it is easy to identify when that power is seen in previously powerless persons. So it is in Arthur Miller’s drama, The Title & author mentioned Crucible. Previously powerless individuals are empowered Transition Sentence through the witch trials. The growth of power made possible through the witch trials is evidenced in the lives of Abigail Claim Williams, Mary Warren, and Tituba.
9 Claim Statements ¡Are clear, concise, and defined ¡Ask: What is the author saying? How does he develop that idea in the text? ¡Begin the structure of your argument ¡Organize your main claims ¡Consistently return to your claim when writing your supporting paragraphs ¡ Everything included should relate back to the claim!
10 Ask yourself… ¡What is the author saying? : Witch trials empowered previously powerless individuals ¡How does the author show it? There are three examples of witch trials giving power to previously powerless: Abigail, Mary Warren, and Tituba ¡***Claim statements may be long, and that is okay— As long as the information is necessary***
11 The Salem witch trials show one event or movement can cause for previously powerless individuals such as, Tituba, Mary Warren, and Abigail Williams to be empowered forces in their society. ¡Think of your thesis statement as an outline for your body paragraphs (in ascending order of importance) ¡ Body Paragraph 1: Tituba ¡ Body Paragraph 2: Mary Warren ¡ Body Paragraph 3: Abigail Williams
12 BODY PARAGRAPHS ¡Don’t merely summarize the action in the play —Use evidence to support your claims ¡How do you decide what to quote? ¡ Quotes with information in new and interesting ways ¡ No need to quote the obvious or boring ¡ Find quotes that support your claim !
13 Punctuating Quotes ¡Put quotation marks before and after the DIRECT quote (that means word for word) ¡In parenthesis, put the author’s name (only the first quote) SPACE page number: (Miller 1128). All other times: (1128). ¡The punctuating period goes LAST: “Blah blah witchcraft” (1128).
14 Explanation of Quotes ¡No quote can stand alone. It is your job to weave the quotes into your argument. ¡You need CONTEXT before the quote! ¡You need to explain the SIGNIFICANCE the quote! after ¡If you can’t relate your quotes back to your claim in your explanation, DON’T USE THEM!!! ¡Your explanation isn’t a summary. It explains HOW the quote relates to your CLAIM. (Connects with significance!)
15 Topic Sentence ¡A topic sentence indicates the MAIN IDEA of the paragraph. Ex) If you are discussing Abigail Williams in your paragraph, mention her in the topic sentence. ¡Abigail Williams drastically changes from the lowliness of a female servant, to a powerful accuser in the court system of Salem. ¡BAD= ¡ This paragraph will… ¡ Abigail accused many people in town ¡ Abigail is powerful.
16 Format for EACH Body Paragraph: ¡Topic Sentence ¡Context (What is happening in the play) ¡Documented Quote ¡Significance (Analyze and connect the quote to your claim).
Body Paragraph Model 17 Topic Sentence ¡Abigail Williams drastically changes from the lowliness of a female servant, to a powerful accuser in the court system of Salem. Abigail’s accusations of Context witchcraft begin to stand as absolutes. In response to John Proctor questioning the validity of Abigail’s testimony against Elizabeth Proctor, Cheever states, “Tis hard proof! […] I tell you true, Proctor” (Miller Documented Quote 1133). It is in Cheever’s response that Abigail’s true power is evidenced. Her voice is no longer lowly and insignificant in Salem, but rather a reckoning voice that brings with it rallied and unquestioned allegiance Significance from other officials and townspeople. Abigail is not the only female servant to gain empowerment through the witch trials, for the same transformation is seen in Mary Warren. Transition Sentence
18 Counterargument Paragraph ¡Acknowledge the opposing view ¡Refute the opposing argument ¡Reassert Claim Scholars may argue that Abigail, Tituba, and Opposing View Mary Warren are not made powerful through the witch trials, but rather through their manipulation of others. This argument, while valid, leaves out the vital engine that these girls use to create such manipulations: that Refutation engine is the witch trials. Therefore, the witch trials themselves are what make the manipulations successful, and ultimately powerful. Reasserted Thesis
19 CONCLUSION ¡Re-state the claim, but not word for word ¡Take the idea one step further to come to a conclusion about theme, character, etc ¡Have a clincher statement. End on a powerful confident note ¡ Hint: Good clinchers are often short: It is through powerless Abigail, Mary, and Tituba transforming Re-state Thesis into powerful forces that Arthur Miller is able to raise an even deeper question: that of power itself. For it is not through individual self that these girls were empowered but rather through the reactions of others to their claims. Miller has thus crafted a Take idea grave warning to all of his readers: Do not let this happen again. further Question everything. Know what is at the heart of personal actions and reactions. Power is powerless without support. Clincher Statement
20 Tone ¡Formal ¡Avoid slang and text speak. ¡No contractions : DO NOT USE “DON’T” ¡Avoid words with little meaning: it, really, a lot, just, kind of, maybe, I think, I mean, like, well, stuff, things ¡Never sound unsure: Be confident! You are arguing your point!
21 Final Thoughts - RECAP ¡Five Paragraphs: ¡ Introduction with claim ¡ 3 body paragraphs with quotes and explanations ¡ Counterargument paragraph acknowledging opposing views in 3 rd body paragraph ¡ Conclusion re-stating thesis and ending with a clincher statement ¡ 3 rd person: no “I”, “we”, “us” or “you” ¡MLA format ¡Must contain at least 3 correctly documented quotations! ¡ Adapted from http: //webcache. googleusercontent. com/search? q=cache: p. JHXx. ZXOrpo. J: www 4. smsd. org/kathystewart/docs/Doc 142259. ppt+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us