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ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING Success Criteria: I can understand the elements of an argumentative essay.
Argumentative writing—why do I need it? • So you can argue like this: https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=9 R 5 w 4 Qz 6 p. Vk • And not like this: https: //video. search. yahoo. com/video/play; _ylt=A 2 KLq. IS 9 NSRWxzo. ARp. Ysn. Il. Q; _ylu=X 3 o. D MTBy. N 2 Rnb. HFo. BHNl. Yw. Nzcg. Rzb. Gs. Ddmlk. BHZ 0 a. WQDBGdwb 3 MDMw-? p=poor+arguments&vid=1400611 f 8 b 28 d 4 b 06 f 5071 e 9 c 7 d 70&turl=http%3 A%2 F%2 Ftse 4. mm. bing. net%2 Fth%3 Fid%3 DWN. 45 no. W 5 xf. D%252 b 43 f 8 Ntp%252 f 4 Jgg%26 pid%3 D 15. 1 %26 h%3 D 168%26 w%3 D 300%26 c%3 D 7%26 rs%3 D 1&rurl=https%3 A%2 F%2 Fwww. youtube. com%2 Fwatch%3 Fv%3 DC 62 z. Hgyt 9 c. U&tit=%26%2339%3 BIts+the+only+argument+I+need %26%2339%3 B++Bad+Teacher&c=2&h=168&w=300&l=19&sigr=11 b 8 up 8 nh&sigt=11 kmflvbb&sigi=12 po 67 cd 4&age=1312815732&fr 2=p%3 As%2 Cv%3 Av&fr=yhs-mozilla-002&hsimp=yhs 002&hspart=mozilla&tt=b
What is argumentative writing? • Argumentative writing is writing in which a writer makes a claim about a topic and then supports it with logic and evidence. • Note: Argumentative writing DOES NOT contain feelings and emotions!! This is different from persuasive writing!
Argumentative Writing Terms • Argument– Making a claim and supporting it using logic. • Thesis Statement/Claim—The position that you are trying to get your readers to accept. • Evidence– Facts that support your claim. • Explanation—Statement that explains how the evidence supports and connects to the claim. • Counterargument/counterclaim—Challenges the argument by addressing the position of someone who may not agree with the argument. • Refutation—Demonstrates why the counterargument is wrong and why your position is right. • Audience—This is who will be affected by the topic, or who will read the essay.
How do I organize an argumentative essay? • An argumentative essay usually contains 5 or more paragraphs. • Argumentative essays require an introductory paragraph, at least 3 body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. Introduction (Includes a “most” hooking the reader, a “some” introducing the issue, and a claim/thesis statement stating one side of the argument) Body Paragraph #1 (Includes the first reason that the claim is valid and includes supporting evidence and explanations) Body Paragraph #2 (Includes the second reason that the claim is valid and includes supporting evidence and explanations) Body Paragraph #3 (Includes the counterargument/counterclaim and the refutation) Conclusion (Restates the claim/thesis statement, summarizes the argument, and uses a strong “drop the mic” statement
Writing the Introductory Paragraph • The introduction has three parts and purposes: 1. Most: The most statement in an argumentative essay “hooks” readers and encourages them to keep reading. Try using one of the following: Lead Example Quote President Obama once said, “During the summer, students are losing a lot of what they learn. A longer school year makes sense. ” (This quote does not come from the text. ) Unusual Detail American farm children once attended school from December to March and mid. May to August. (This has to be a fact you know. ) Strong Statement Students must attend school; a shorter school year is comparable to child neglect. Question Are most Americans satisfied that compared to their peers in Europe and Asia, American students score lower on achievement tests?
Writing the Introductory Paragraph (continued) 2. “Some” statement: This is where you introduce the issue. Briefly explain the issue and the controversy surrounding the argument. Example: Much to the public’s dismay, summer vacations are in jeopardy in America, as the Secretary of Education pushes forward with a movement to extend the school year. 3. State your claim: This is thesis statement. It is the side of the argument you are attempting to have your reader to understand. (This is your argument. ) Use one of these key words to form the claim/thesis statement: Reasons, Benefits, Advantages or Disadvantages. Example: There are definite advantages associated with switching to a year round school schedule in the United States.
Writing Body Paragraphs #1 and #2: Support the Claim/Thesis Statement 1. Start with a topic sentence that introduces a reason people should be convinced by the argument. (This is an answer to the claim/thesis statement. ) Example: In order to improve academically and to avoid “summer slide, ” American students should attend school year round. 2. Then include specific evidence to support the claim/thesis statement. Use facts, examples, and statistics from the text to back up the claim. Example: For example, “Balsz, a district in Arizona, saw reading test scores go up from 51 percent to 65 percent after extending the school year by 20 days. ” 3. Follow each piece of evidence with an explanation to explain how or why the evidence supports the claim. Example: This significant increase proves that students benefit by having more time in school.
Writing Body Paragraphs #1 and #2 (continued): 4. Close with a concluding sentence. Example: It is possible to improve student test scores by requiring more days in school.
Writing Body Paragraph #3/ Counterargument Paragraph 1. The opposing argument, called the counterargument/counterclaim, proves that you fully understand the topic, and that you are fair-minded. Example: Some people claim that the real results of studies seeming to show score increases in year round schools are inconclusive, and it is difficult to pinpoint the real reason for the increases. Transition words and phrases to use in the counterargument: It might seem that It’s true that Admittedly, Of course, One might object While Certainly At first glance, Some people claim 2. The refutation is a return to the original argument. Be sure to refute the opposing claim. Example: However, there is no doubt that students in Europe, where there is year round school, outperform American students on achievement tests.
Writing the Concluding Paragraph • The concluding paragraph is important, as it must close the issue by showing that the topic has been covered thoroughly. It should also provide an idea as to how people should be warned about the topic, or how they can benefit from the position argued. 1. Begin by restating the claim/thesis statement. Example: Year round school is the answer to the economic and educational problems in the United States. 2. Then, write one or two sentences that summarize the reasons and evidence. Example: A year round schedule will prevent students from losing the hardearned knowledge they gained during the school year. 3. Finally, write a “drop the mic” statement—this is a benefit that will result from obeying or listening to the argument. You can also write a call to action to move the audience into wanting to make a change (in behavior, ideas, thoughts, actions, etc. ) Example: The nation’s future depends upon having intelligent citizens. Schools must be year round in order to graduate such citizens.
General Tips Do Do Not Use strong, convincing language Weaken your argument by using “I believe” or “I think” **Don’t use 1 st or 2 nd person!!** Use reliable facts Make up facts or statistics—tell the truth Use 2 pieces of evidence--facts, examples, and/or statistics--per body paragraph Rely on personal experiences. No personal stories. Be respectful of those who disagree with your position Insult those who disagree