- Slides: 32
Aquatic Ecosystems • Freshwater –Ponds & Lakes –Streams & Rivers –Wetlands • Marine – Mangroves *Sargasso Sea – Open Oceans – Coral Reefs – Estuaries – Hydrothermal vents – Kelp Forest
Freshwater • Ponds & Lakes • Streams & Rivers • Wetlands
Freshwater Ponds • Freshwater=low salt (<1%) • Ponds – seasonal or 100+ years, limited species • Ponds -3 Zones based on sunlight • Photosynthesis impacts species
Parts of a lake – How would each layer be affected by light and oxygen?
A Lake Ecosystem
Ponds and Lakes
Streams & Rivers • Water moving in one direction • Headwaters Mouth • Water is cleaner until the end www. noaa. gov/str-plan/images/river. gif
Stream vs. River • Trout stream, NW NJ Mississippi R. Greenville, MS
Mouth • Mississippi River delta Review question: What Is the difference Between a delta and an Alluvial fan?
Life in a River • Mosses anchor themselves to rocks. • Trout and minnows are adapted to the cold, oxygen rich water. • Plankton can float in the warmer, calmer waters. • Plants here can set roots in the river’s rich sediment. • Fish such as catfish and carp also live in these calmer waters.
Streams & Rivers
Rivers in Danger • Trash • Pollution • Run-off from Agriculture
Wetlands • Standing water that support aquatic plants Examples: Marshes, swamps, and bogs – Lots of diversity –Fresh or Brackish –Help to reduce flooding –Filter pollution
Environmental Functions of Wetlands
Plants Wetlands • Moist and humid conditions Pond lilies Cattails Tamarack Gum Sedges Black Spruce Cypress
Human Impact on Wetlands • Used to think they were breeding ground for insects • Most have been cleared for development • Laws protect wetlands now
Wetlands • CA OR AK
River Otter Wetlands Damselfly Crayfish Catfish Snails Leech Sculpin Minnow Dragonfly Mayfly Bluegill Bass Snakes Frog Great Blue Heron Canadian Goose Turtle
Eutrophication • Too many nutrients • Phosphorus (Detergent) • Nitrogen (Fertilizer, Animal Waste) • NOT GOOD- Plants overgrow • Cuts off light and oxygen levels
Marsh • Lots in U. S. • Occur along streams • Wet soil and no trees
Swamp • Wood vegetation • Common in Southeast U. S.
Mangroves – trees grow in salty water
Plants and Animals of Estuaries • Rooted plants and plankton. • Provide food for plants. • Oysters and Clams on rocks • Can tolerate variations in salinity
Threats to Estuaries • Trash • Pollutants- sewage, pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic chemicals.
Estuaries • Estuary is an area where fresh and salt water mix – Very productive- nutrients from river and not in ocean so they are protected from waves
Sargasso Sea- affected by currents
Hydrothermal Vents- deep ocean, chemosynthesis
Review Questions • Name one example of a freshwater vs. marine ecosystem • Describe 1 characteristic of a… freshwater pond, stream/river, wetland, marsh, swamp, estuary, mangrove, Sargasso Sea, Kelp Forest, Hydrothermal Vent. • What are the benefits of wetlands and why are they being destroyed? • What is Eutrophication? • Which ecosystems are in North Carolina?