AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY and POLLUTION Dr S M Talekar
AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY and POLLUTION Dr. S. M. Talekar Head, P. G. Dept. of Botany Mrs. K. S. K. College Beed
Content • • • Aquatic regime Aquatic biodiversity Aquatic pollution Impact on biodiversity Future research
Aquatic regime • • Marine Estuary Back waters Pond and lakes Rivers and streams Wetlands Ground water aquifers
Aquatic Biodiversity • Flora: – Phytoplankton – Algae – Aquatic weeds • Fauna: – Zooplankton – Pelagic forms – Nectons – Benthos • Micro-organisms
Aquatic pollution • Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e. g. lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater). • Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging either to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. • Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
Sources • • Farmers often use chemicals: Industrial processes produce toxic waste: Construction industry: Ground water pollution: Natural catastrophes: Growth of algae: Littering on the land:
• Point—source pollution is generally a single element caused by one main source. An industrial spill into a river would be an example of point—source pollution. • Nonpoint—source pollution is the result of numerous causes of contaminants that create pollution. These pollutants can travel great distances in the form of runoff or through storm drains. 1. Surface water pollution is the most recognizable form of water contamination. This is the pollution that can be visibly seen floating on the top of the water. While surface water pollution is often in the form of trash it can also be chemically based, such as gasoline or oil slicks floating on the water’s surface. 2. Groundwater pollution refers to the effects of chemicals (such as pesticides) that seep through the ground and enter water sources that originate underground. Well water is groundwater, thus groundwater pollution can be extremely dangerous to the health of humans as well as to the health of the planet.
• Point-source pollutants in surface water and groundwater are usually found in a plume that has the highest concentrations of the pollutant nearest the source and diminishing concentrations farther away from the source. The various types of point-source pollutants found in waters are as varied as the types of business, industry, agricultural, and urban sources that produce them. • The raw materials and wastes may include pollutants such as solvents, petroleum products (such as oil and gasoline), or heavy metals. • Point sources of pollution from agriculture may include animal feeding operations, animal waste treatment lagoons, or storage, handling, mixing, and cleaning areas for pesticides, fertilizers, and petroleum. • Municipal point sources might include wastewater treatment plants, landfills, utility stations, motor pools, and fleet maintenance facilities. • Some of the most persistent point-source pollutants in groundwater are volatile organic compounds , which include manufactured and refined toxic substances such as solvents, oils, paint, and fuel products. Once groundwater is contaminated, it is difficult, costly, and sometimes even impossible to clean up. • The most common point-source pollutants in surface water are: – High-temperature discharges; – Microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, and Giardia ); and – Nutrients (such as nitrogen and phosphorus).
Treated effluent discharge in the river
Algae growth due to sewage discharges
• Nonpoint-source pollution occurs as water moves across the land or through the ground and picks up natural and human-made pollutants, which can then be deposited in lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and even groundwater. The water that carries nonpointsource pollution may originate from natural processes such as rainfall or snowmelt, or from human activities such as crop irrigation or lawn maintenance. – Urban Runoff: Chemicals and fertilizers used on grass or in gardens, along with car emissions, oil, antifreeze, paint, battery acid, pet waste, household cleaners and other impurities can get into our water. – Failing Septic Systems: Properly functioning septic systems separate out solids into a holding tank, and filter liquid waste through the soil. Pathogen-containing waste may emerge at the surface where it can be washed into streams and lakes by rain, or it can seep directly into groundwater. – Agriculture: Tons of topsoil wash off cultivated fields every year and much of it ends up in streams and lakes. The problem grows when fertilizers and pesticides applied to that soil get washed into the water. Improperly managed waste from livestock also damages streams and lakes, robbing them of oxygen. – Mining: When mines are not properly constructed, operated or reclaimed, they cause significant pollution. Sediment is washed into streams when reclamation is inadequate. The impurities in coal create acids when exposed to water and air, and these acids often wash into streams or seep into groundwater. – Construction: When soil is disturbed, sediment may enter streams, rivers and lakes through runoff. Oils, paints, cleaners and other pollutants used in construction can also damage our waters. – Stream Projects: Dredging, channelization and other stream alteration projects damage water quality when tons of silt, rock and debris are disturbed. The debris moves into other areas of streams or lakes, smothering aquatic life and destroying aquatic habitat.
Effects of Water Pollution • The effects of water pollution are far-reaching and affect not only the environment, but human beings and animals as well. Water pollution affects our oceans, lakes, rivers, and drinking water, making it a widespread and global concern. • Numerous diseases, health problems, and even fatalities have been associated with water pollution. • • • 1) The food chain is damaged. 2) Diseases can spread via polluted water. 3) Pollutants will alter the overall chemistry of the water. 5) Aquatic food sources are contaminated: 6) Altered water temperatures.
Groundwater Pollution • Groundwater pollution is a very serious problem, harder to recognize • There are several potential groundwater pollutants that can seriously contaminate drinking water. Most groundwater pollution happens because of improper disposal, use, or storage of chemicals, pesticides. • Landfills have been known to cause toxic runoff that infiltrates the groundwater supply and underground tanks for storing gasoline and diesel for petrol stations can develop minor leaks and seep into the ground. • A groundwater supply that is directly over a plot filled with animals, such as a farm environment, can be contaminated with the bacteria from animal waste. The chronic use of chemically based pollutants such as weed killer, insecticides, and antifreeze puts many home groundwater supplies at risk for contamination.
Experimentation 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Water quality assessment Bioassay for water contamination Bio-chemical estimations Histo-physiology Field based data collection Population level studies Human health – Demographic data
Biological transport variables Rate of emission Concentration at Point emission Diffusion coefficient Environmental currents Concentration at target or Point in environment Rate of transport Source Amount emitted over unit time Sedimentation Rate of removal or accumulation Chemical transfor -mation variables Dilution Flow chart showing toxicological aspects Amount reaching target over unit time Biological transfor -mation variables Effects at the target
TREATED EFFLUENT PARAMETERS STANDARD VALUES Acidity ----- 2000 mg/L Alkalinity 400 mg/L 2900 mg/L p. H 6 -9 8 Silica NA 222. 5 mg/L Sulphate NA 1. 38 mg/L Chloride 5 mg/L 191. 76 mg/L Free CO 2 30 mg/L 220 mg/L Orthophosphate 0. 12 mg/L 46. 875 mg/L Hardness 500 mg/L 24000 mg/L VALUES
Liver Fish Gills
Mass Fish Kill due to polluted water
WATER BORNE DISEASES AGENT SOURCES AMEBIASIS PROTOZOAN (Entameoba. histolytic) SEWAGE, NON TREATING DRINKING WATER AND FLIES CHOLERA BACTERIUM (Vibrio. cholerae) UNTERATED WATER, SEWAGE, POOR HYGIENE GIARDIASIS PROTOZOAN (Giardia. lamblia) CONTAMINATED WATER, FEACAL MATTER TYPHIOD BACTERIUM(Salmonella. typhi) RAW SEWAGE, FECAL MATTER SCHISTOSOMIASIS SCHISTOSOMA CONTAMINATED FRESH WATER CYCLOSPORIASIS Cyclospora. cayetanensis SEWAGE AND NON TREATED DRINKING WATER