APPLICATIONS OF MAGNESIUM DIBORIDE TO PARTICLE PHYSICS Riccardo

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APPLICATIONS OF MAGNESIUM DIBORIDE TO PARTICLE PHYSICS Riccardo Musenich Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare

APPLICATIONS OF MAGNESIUM DIBORIDE TO PARTICLE PHYSICS Riccardo Musenich Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Genova

Summary Historical introduction Applications of superconductors Superconductors in particle physics Applications of new materials

Summary Historical introduction Applications of superconductors Superconductors in particle physics Applications of new materials Mg. B 2: overview italian programs INFN activity future INFN programs (if any)

1911 : discovery of superconductivity H. Kamerlingh Onnes, Commun. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, 122

1911 : discovery of superconductivity H. Kamerlingh Onnes, Commun. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, 122 e 124, 1911

Starting from the fourties many superconducting materials, like niobium nitride and niobium-tin*, have been

Starting from the fourties many superconducting materials, like niobium nitride and niobium-tin*, have been discovered, but only in 1962 the first “industrial scale” superconducting wires (based on niobium-titanium) have been developed by Westighouse. In 1986 HTCS (La 1. 85 Ba 0. 15 Cu. O 4, Tc=30 K) have been discovered**. The higher critical temperature for HTCS is 138 K (Hg 0. 8 Tl 0. 2 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 8. 33 )*** *** B. T. Matthias et al. , Phys. Rev. 95, 1435 (1954) J. G. Bednorz, K. A. Müller, Z. Phys. B, Cond. Matter, 64, 189 -193 (1986) P. Dai et al. , Physica C, 243, 201 -206 (1995)

Applications of superconductivity Energy production and transport Alternators Transformers Cables Energy storage (SMES) Current

Applications of superconductivity Energy production and transport Alternators Transformers Cables Energy storage (SMES) Current limiters (FCL) Trasports magnetic levitation motors MHD propulsion

Applications of superconductivity Electronics and communications filters antennas microprocessors Industrial applications Magnets for: magnetic

Applications of superconductivity Electronics and communications filters antennas microprocessors Industrial applications Magnets for: magnetic separation crystal growth chemical processes Sensors SQUID

Applications of superconductivity Medicine MRI biomagnetic measurements Research laboratory magnets NMR spectrometers magnets for

Applications of superconductivity Medicine MRI biomagnetic measurements Research laboratory magnets NMR spectrometers magnets for nuclear fusion accelerator components (magnets and rf cavities) superconducting detectors SQUID

WORLDWIDE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY MARKET YEAR 2000 M€ % R&D 415 18 (30) MRI 1900 (900)

WORLDWIDE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY MARKET YEAR 2000 M€ % R&D 415 18 (30) MRI 1900 (900) 80 (66) other applications 55 2 (4) TOTAL 2370 (1370) 100 CONECTUS , december 2001

Applications of HTCS (YBCO e BSCCO) At present, technical difficulties in handling the materials

Applications of HTCS (YBCO e BSCCO) At present, technical difficulties in handling the materials and high costs (200 €/k. A m) limit, the HTCS to niche applications. The technological research looks toward the energy transport and to devices like FCL and transformers. HTCS (YBCO e BSCCO) market: 15 M€ 1%

Among the research application, particle physics largely uses superconducting materials, mainly for magnets and

Among the research application, particle physics largely uses superconducting materials, mainly for magnets and accelerating cavities. The choice between resistive and superconductive devices is generally related to technical aspects: the superconductor technology is often the only possibility to achieve the required performances.

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics accelerating cavities Recyclotron STANFORD MUSL University of Illinois

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics accelerating cavities Recyclotron STANFORD MUSL University of Illinois S-Dalinac Darmstat TRISTAN KEK HERA DESY CEBAF JEFFERSON LAB LEP CERN TESLA TF DESY J. Proch, Rep. Prog. Phys. , 61, 431 -482, 1998

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics accelerating cavities Argonne National Laboratory Stony Brook Florida

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics accelerating cavities Argonne National Laboratory Stony Brook Florida State University of Washington CEN – Saclay JAERI INFN – LNL ANU – Canberra J. Proch, Rep. Prog. Phys. , 61, 431 -482, 1998

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics magnets for accelerators TEVATRON FNAL RHIC BNL HERA

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics magnets for accelerators TEVATRON FNAL RHIC BNL HERA DESY LHC CERN (under construction)

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics magnets for accelerators Chal. K River S. C.

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics magnets for accelerators Chal. K River S. C. Canada K 500 MSU K 800 INFN – LNS K 1200 MSU AGOR KVI Groningen + other 3 S. C. under construction

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics detector magnets The first large superconducting detector magnet

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics detector magnets The first large superconducting detector magnet was constructed in the sixties: it was the solenoid for the 12 ft bubble chamber of Zero Gradient Synchrotron (Argonne National Laboratory) CELLO DELPHI CDF ZEUS TOPAZ BABAR VENUS ATLAS ALEPH CMS

widest used superconducting materials : Nb-Ti (magnet conductors) Nb 3 Sn (magnet conductors) Nb

widest used superconducting materials : Nb-Ti (magnet conductors) Nb 3 Sn (magnet conductors) Nb (accelerating cavities) At present, the material under development are: alloyed Nb 3 Sn, Nb 3 Al, YBCO, BSCCO and Mg. B 2

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics materials for accelerating cavities RS=RBCS+RRES Pb Nb other

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics materials for accelerating cavities RS=RBCS+RRES Pb Nb other material (Nb. N, Nb 3 Sn …) Niobium nitride

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics HTCS To reduce thermal load at low temperature,

superconductivity in nuclear and subnuclear physics HTCS To reduce thermal load at low temperature, the LHC magnets will be equipped with HTCS current leads. This one is the first large scale application of the HTCS in high energy physics.

Mg. B 2 Tc = 39 K ITCS Mg. B 2 is the binary

Mg. B 2 Tc = 39 K ITCS Mg. B 2 is the binary compound with the highest critical temperature J. Nagamatsu, N. Nakagawa, T. Muranaka, Y. Zenitani, J. Akimitsu Nature 410 63 (2001)

The material characteristics technological applications: seems favourable for • high critical temperature (39 K)

The material characteristics technological applications: seems favourable for • high critical temperature (39 K) • Bc 2 15 T • no weak links ( =5 nm) • low anisotropy • high critical current density (Jc 5 109 A/m 2 a 20 K e 0 T) • low cost (extimated: 5 €/k. A m) On the other hand, the irreversibility field is relatively low: 4 Tesla at 20 K

Thanks to the know-how and the technologies developed for the production of HTCS conductors,

Thanks to the know-how and the technologies developed for the production of HTCS conductors, few month after the discovery of the superconducting properties of Mg. B 2, wires and tapes became available in several meter lengths.

production technique of magnesium diboride conductors: in situ Powder in tubes (PIT) ex situ

production technique of magnesium diboride conductors: in situ Powder in tubes (PIT) ex situ

Like Nb 3 Sn, Mg. B 2 requires a high temperature heat treatment to

Like Nb 3 Sn, Mg. B 2 requires a high temperature heat treatment to achieve good transport properties*. Two routes can be followed to construct a magnet: REACT & WIND & REACT * Ex-situ PIT conductors have high critical current even without heat treatment!

Thin films can be deposited by : from Mg. B 2 cathode Sputtering from

Thin films can be deposited by : from Mg. B 2 cathode Sputtering from precursor cathodes reactive sputtering Evaporation Laser ablation

Resonant cavities Thin Mg. B 2 films Squid Detectors

Resonant cavities Thin Mg. B 2 films Squid Detectors

Mg. B 2 Research programs on Mg. B 2 in Italy

Mg. B 2 Research programs on Mg. B 2 in Italy

Research (mainly fundamental) with ordinary funds (CNR, INFM, Universities) Industrial R&D (Ansaldo Superconduttori, Columbus

Research (mainly fundamental) with ordinary funds (CNR, INFM, Universities) Industrial R&D (Ansaldo Superconduttori, Columbus Superconductors, Edison, Europa Metalli, Pirelli) INFN (Ma-Bo project) 2002 -2004 INFM (MIUR funded project) 2004 -2006

Ma-Bo the INFN program (2002 -2004) on magnesium diboride applications to nuclear and particle

Ma-Bo the INFN program (2002 -2004) on magnesium diboride applications to nuclear and particle physics Genova Frascati National Laboratories Legnaro National Laboratories Milano Napoli Torino 30 people involved (about 10 FTE).

Ma-Bo The research project Ma-Bo aims to understand if magnesium diboride could be used

Ma-Bo The research project Ma-Bo aims to understand if magnesium diboride could be used for particle physics applications. The research activities are related to: Magnets Thin films for cavities Thin films for detectors and other devices

Ma-Bo is in collabotation with: ENEA INFM Universities Ansaldo Superconduttori Columbus Superconductors

Ma-Bo is in collabotation with: ENEA INFM Universities Ansaldo Superconduttori Columbus Superconductors

Thin films I=1 A B Cathodes V = 400 460 V Mg. B 2

Thin films I=1 A B Cathodes V = 400 460 V Mg. B 2 Mg t = 10 min Plasma Ar atmosphere Mg pellets Substrate Nb box Platform T “cold” Heater R. Vaglio, INFN and University of Naples

Problems in using Mg. B 2 for rf resonant cavities: – Mg. B 2

Problems in using Mg. B 2 for rf resonant cavities: – Mg. B 2 is a double gap superconductor – A homogeneous, pure (single phase) film must be deposited onto large area substrates – The material is chemically instable (exposed to the atmosphere)

f = 20 GHz e-D/KT Rs res 1 m. W R. Vaglio, INFN and

f = 20 GHz e-D/KT Rs res 1 m. W R. Vaglio, INFN and University of Naples

XPS spectrum of a Mg. B 2 film

XPS spectrum of a Mg. B 2 film

XPS spectrum of a Mg. B 2 film (B 1 s)

XPS spectrum of a Mg. B 2 film (B 1 s)

XPS spectrum of a Mg. B 2 film (Mg 2 s)

XPS spectrum of a Mg. B 2 film (Mg 2 s)

magneto-optical analysis on Mg. B 2 films Dendritic flux penetration B(m. T) E. Mezzetti,

magneto-optical analysis on Mg. B 2 films Dendritic flux penetration B(m. T) E. Mezzetti, INFN and Politecnico di Torino

Production of Mg. B 2 tape (PIT method) at LAMIA laboratory (INFM) 3. 5

Production of Mg. B 2 tape (PIT method) at LAMIA laboratory (INFM) 3. 5 mm x 0. 3 mm SC fill factor 15 -20% 100 meters

10 n 1000 G. Grasso, INFM–LAMIA Genova

10 n 1000 G. Grasso, INFM–LAMIA Genova

G. Grasso, INFM–LAMIA Genova

G. Grasso, INFM–LAMIA Genova

Mg. B 2 “React&Wind” solenoid wound by Ansaldo Superconduttori with 80 m long INFM/Columbus

Mg. B 2 “React&Wind” solenoid wound by Ansaldo Superconduttori with 80 m long INFM/Columbus tape Ø 145 mm

React & wind technique 6 layers 27 turns/layer Diameter = 15 cm B =

React & wind technique 6 layers 27 turns/layer Diameter = 15 cm B = 1. 35 m. T/A, (coil center) B = 2. 15 m. T/A (BMAX at the conductor)

Solenoid test in liquid helium bath Superconducting for most of the length No resistance

Solenoid test in liquid helium bath Superconducting for most of the length No resistance observed at the layer joggle Localized dissipation at the inner electrical exit Despite the localizad dissipation (4 W at 47 A) the solenoid was able to carry 53 A before quenching (11 m. T at the conductor, 6 m. T at coil center)

20 cm Pancake coil wound by Ansaldo Superconduttori with 40 m tape (INFM/Columbus Superconductors)

20 cm Pancake coil wound by Ansaldo Superconduttori with 40 m tape (INFM/Columbus Superconductors)

Test of the pancake coils in liquid helium bath Both the coils were fully

Test of the pancake coils in liquid helium bath Both the coils were fully superconducting Pancake #1 reached 215 A (BMAX=0. 47 T, BC= 0. 13 T) Pancake #2 reached 335 A (BMAX=0. 74 T, BC= 0. 20 T)

Several problems must be solved but the feasibility of Mg. B 2 magnets is

Several problems must be solved but the feasibility of Mg. B 2 magnets is clearly demonstrated

Perspective for ITCS (Mg. B 2) in nuclear and subnuclear physics Easy to produce.

Perspective for ITCS (Mg. B 2) in nuclear and subnuclear physics Easy to produce. Low cost of the material. No weak link. High critical current density. applications: cryogen free, low field, superconducting magnets

Improvement of Mg. B 2 properties Powder density Grain dimension Nanoparticles inclusions Lattice disorder

Improvement of Mg. B 2 properties Powder density Grain dimension Nanoparticles inclusions Lattice disorder Doping Texturing Jc Hc 2, Hirr

CONCLUSIONS At present, superconducting devices like cavities and magnets, based on niobium and niobium-titanium

CONCLUSIONS At present, superconducting devices like cavities and magnets, based on niobium and niobium-titanium respectively, are largely used in particle physics. Till now, neither Mg. B 2 nor other superconducting materials can compete with niobium for application in accelerating cavities. Among the new superconductors, magnesium diboride seems a good candidate for the construction of magnets. Low field magnets will be probably the first step but there are several indication about the possibility of a field improvement.