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Apparel Production Overview Dilawar Shaikh
Introduction to Garment Manufacturing ØGarment manufacturing is an assembly- oriented activity with a great range of raw materials, product types, production volumes, supply chains, retail markets and associated technologies. ØCompanies range from small family business to multinationals. ØThe clothing industry is labour intensive industry.
Departments in garment manufacturing unit Merchandising department Sampling department Fabric store department Trims and accessories store department Spreading & Cutting department Sewing department Washing department Quality Assurance department Finishing & Packaging department Maintenance Department Finance and Accounts Department HR/Admin Department
Process flow in garment manufacturing unit Buyer- Supplier Meeting Production order placed Sampling generation for Purchase Order Pre production sample Fabric washing Raw material inspection Raw material procurement Production Shipment sample Finishing Packing Shipment
Process flow in merchandising department Receipt of the techpack sampling Pattern making Raw material procurement Raw material inspection BOM draft for production Getting the fit sample approved Fit sample making Getting approval on proto sample Proto sample development Approval sample development Order approved for production Getting approvals on size set samples Raw material procurement R aw material inspection Send shipment samples to the buyer Follow up with the production department Order file transferred to the production department Approval on pre production sample GPT/FPT to conform to standards Follow up with the production department till delivery
Responsibilities of a merchandiser Internal & external communication Sampling Preparing internal order sheets Accessories & trims Preparing purchase orders Merchandiser Getting approvals on lab dips and bit looms Advising and assisting production and quality department Mediating production and quality departments Helping documentation Taking responsibility for inspections Giving shipping instructions and following shipment Source: http: //www. fibre 2 fashion. com/industry-article/36/3516/merchandising-in-an-apparel-industry 1.
Responsibilities of sampling department Ø Getting clarifications about style details from merchandiser. Ø Checking pattern’s workability. Ø Preparation of different samples and getting the buyer’s approval. Ø Informing quality related problems, encountered during preparing samples, to QC. Ø Minimizing operations and consumption.
Types of sample prepared Design development • This is the first sample which is made for any style by most of the buyer. • Design development is either done by buyer or factory • The main purpose is to take the decision to proceed with the same line or not. Proto sample • Proto sample is developed at very initial stage and normally order is confirmed to the factory based on proto sample. • Proto sample is the rough interpretation of the enquiry done to acquaint the tailors with the style. • It is usually done on the substitute fabrics, and using accessories, what is available and then checked on the dress form. • The buyer may make the necessary changes pertaining to the fit, the drape, the style details etc. Fit sample • Fit sample is made and send to conform the fit of the garment on live models or on dummy and for approval of construction details. • The fabric used for fit sample production is the actual fabric which is going to be used for bulk production or sample yardage fabric is used. Photo shoot sample • In order to promote the new style in the market normally buyer asks for photo shoot sample. • Buyer uses this photo for marketing purpose either on catalogue or various media like, print, TV or websites to see the response of the consumer. Sales man / Marketing /Showroom sample • The main purpose of salesman sample is to collect the order from the retailers. • In Sales man sample actual accessory, actual fabric is used or sample yardage need to be used. • This sample also very important stage of sampling as the sales of buyer depends upon this sample presentation, look, feel of fabric is important. Source: http: // www. textiletoday. com. bd/magazine/609
Types of sample prepared Size set sample • The main purpose of size set sample is to check the factory's capability to make the sample in all sizes • 1 -2 samples (or quantity specified by buyer) of each size need to send to buyer. GPT sample (Garment Performance Test) • The main purpose of GPT is to perform the physical and chemical testing on garment to ensure the performance of the garment. • GPT Sample is sent to 3 rd party inspection and results are sent to both factory as well as buyer. • The tests done on garments are: Shrinkage, Color Fastness, Seam performance etc. Pre- production sample • PP sample is considered to be a contract between the buyer and the factory. • It has to be made in original fabric and trims • Washing, embroidery and printing should match to actual. • PP Sample is the standard for production and bulk production garments should be identical to PP sample. • The factory can start the production of bulk garment only after the approval of preproduction sample. Wash sample • Wash sample is made and submitted to buyer for assessment of feel and handle of fabric after washing. TOP sample (Top of Production) • The top of production is sent to the buyer as soon initial pieces are come out of sewing line. • In TOP sample Buyer tries to evaluate the actual manufacturing of the style. • Buyer check whether bulk production is as per submitted sample or not. Shipment sample • Few buyers may ask for the shipment samples which factory needs to pull form the actual shipment and sent to buyer. • The main purpose of this sample is to assure buyer about the actual shipment dispatch. Source: http: // www. textiletoday. com. bd/magazine/609
Fabric store department
Functions of the fabric store department Ø Receive the fabric as per Buyers Requirements Ø Fabric inspection (four point system) Ø Conduct fabric test (e. g. Shrinkage, colour fastness etc. ) Ø Issue to the production department as per the requirement
Fabric audit procedure Ø 10% random inspection for sampling or lining or net fabric. Ø Inspection for production order fabric as per buyer’s requirement. Ø Perform GSM cutting. Ø Perform shrinkage test. Ø Check the fabric for the bowing or skewing. : Ø Check fabric roll for the defects. Ø Allocate points to the defects. ke c he c re a ics dth i §W ad h §S ) e dg e r fab e Th or f d elv s o t e ntr ce ( e in av ts fec g de ea t s ( e e §W inkag hr §S fu & m ) g n si
Trims and accessories Store department
Functions of the trims and accessories department Ø To receive incoming material. Ø To check material for attribute & variables. Ø To arrange the incoming material in allocated racks. Ø To issue trims as per BOM for sampling and production & other material as per requirement. Ø To maintain a record of incoming & outgoing material.
Spreading and cutting department
Spreading and cutting flow process Planning Spreading Cutting Preparation for sewing
Spreading and cutting flow process Spreads Planning Markers Production Spreading Manual Machine Manual Cutting Preparation for sewing Machine Ticketing Bundles
Planning Spreads Markers Production
Cut order planning It translates customer orders into cutting orders Ø minimize total production costs Ø meet deadlines Ø seek most effective use of labor, equipment, fabric and space
Responsibilities of Cut Order Planning Ø Examining incoming orders and piece goods width and availability Ø Determining volume, size ratios, and sectioning procedures for marker making Ø Determining whether file markers are available or new ones are needed Ø Developing specifications for optimum marker making and fabric utilization Ø Determine most effective use of spreading and cutting equipment and personnel Ø Issuing orders for marker making, spreading and cutting
Cutting orders leads to Marker planning Lay planning
Marker planning Ø The results of cut order planning are cutting orders that direct marker planning and cut planning. Ø The purpose of marker planning is to determine the most efficient combination of sizes and shades for each order and to produce the best fabric yield and equipment utilization. Ø One cutting order may require several markers to achieve optimum efficiency. Ø A lay is a stack of fabric plies that have been prepared for cutting. Ø Lay planning is the basis of managing cutting room labor and table space. Ø Spreading and cutting schedules are affected by: § table length, § type of equipment, § spread length, § spreading time and § cutting time.
Marker Ø is a diagram of a precise arrangement of pattern pieces for a specific style and the sizes to be cut from a single spread. Marker making Ø is the process of determining the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a specified style, fabric, and distribution of sizes (requires time, skill and concentration)
Marker making Ø Marker making is a critical step in the manufacturing process. Ø By retaining strict control over this critical step, they keep the fabric consumption as low as possible. Ø It also ensures that the issues that affect quality will be given proper attention. These include placing patterns on grain, keeping patterns paired, and attending to details such as drill holes and notches. Ø Depending on the relative efficiency of each marker produced, the company may save or waste thousands of dollars a year. Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, “Pre-Assembly Processes – The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and Bundling”, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005
Marker making Markers types: Ø Blocks or Sections § Blocked or sectioned markers contain all of the pattern pieces for one style in one or two sizes. Ø Continuous § Block or section marker Continuous markers contain all the pattern pieces for all sizes included in a single cutting. Continuous marker
Marker making Markers types: Ø Open marker § Marker made with full pattern pieces. Ø Closed marker § Marker made with half garment parts pieces for laying along the folds of the tube (tubular knit). Closed marker
Marker making Manually produced Computerized marker making (CAD)
Marker making Manual marker Ø Created on marker paper or directly on fabric ply Ø Tracing by pencil or tailor’s chalk. Ø Time consuming. Ø Subject to errors. (pattern overlap, grain line, poor line definition, omission of pcs. ) Ø Accuracy depends on individual’s skill.
Computerised marker Marker making Ø Accurate Ø Shortest response time. Ø Direct or digitized. Ø Manipulate images to determine best utilization. No overlapping/no omissions Ø Parameters (style #, size, etc. ) for markers are entered into the computer. Ø Can be printed/recalled/modified. Ø Criteria can be set by technician. Can be used to determine fabric requirement.
Marker making Marker mode : Nap/ One/ Way Ø The Nap/ One/ Way marker (abbreviated N/O/W) is made with every pattern placed with the “down” direction of the pattern in the same direction. Ø This mode is necessary for fabrics that are asymmetric. Ø All patterns are placed on-grain, and in the “down” direction, which is usually toward the left edge (starting point where the legend is written). Ø The Nap/One/ Way marker is the highest quality but least efficient of the three nap directions for a marker. Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, “Pre-Assembly Processes – The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and Bundling”, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005
Marker making Marker mode : Nap/ Either/ Way Ø The Nap/ Either/ Way marker (abbreviated N/E/W) is made where there is no restriction of which way the pattern are oriented. Ø The patterns may be oriented either “down” or “up”, placed wherever they fit best, only making sure that the patterns are on-grain. Ø The Nap/ Either/ Way marker is usually the most efficient mode yielding the highest fabric utilization. Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, “Pre-Assembly Processes – The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and Bundling”, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005
Marker making Marker mode : Nap/ Up/& Down Ø The Nap/ Up/& Down marker (abbreviated N/U/D) is more efficient than the Nap/ One/ Way marker, but not as efficient as the Nap/ Either/ Way marker. Ø In order to get a better fit between the patterns, alternating sizes of patterns are oriented in opposite directions. Ø This method is yields moderately good fabric utilization, and good quality. Source: Kahn, Cohen and Soto, “Pre-Assembly Processes – The Cutting Room Marking, Spreading, Cutting and Bundling”, The Fashion Manufacturing Process A Product Development Approach, May 2005
Marker making Marker Efficiency Area of patterns in the marker plan X 100% Total area of the marker plan Ø It is determined for fabric utilization Ø Minimum waste Factors affecting marker efficiency Ø Fabric characteristics (fabric width, length of design repeat etc. ) Ø Shape of Pattern pieces (large pieces – less flexibility) Ø Grain requirements
Spreading Ø Spreading is the processes of superimposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table cutting table or specially designed surface in preparation for the cutting process Ø Spread or lay is the total amount of fabric prepared for a single marker Requirement of spreading Ø Shade sorting of cloth pieces Spreading equipment Ø Spreading surfaces ( table, pin Ø Correct ply direction and adequate lay stability table, vacuum table) Ø Alignment of plies Ø Spreading machines Ø Correct ply tension Ø Elimination of fabric faults Ø Avoidance of distortion in the spread
Spreading equipment Ø Spreading surfaces ( table, pin table, vacuum table) Ø Spreading machines
Spreading Manual Machine
Manual spreading Ø In manual spreading, fabric is drawn from its package which, if it is a roll, may be supported by a frame and carried along the table where the end is secured by weights or by clamps. Ø The operators work back from the end, aligning the edges and ensuring that there is no tension and that there are no wrinkles.
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