- Slides: 55
Apartheid South Africa
Tribes in South Africa • Zulu • Xhosa • Sotho
Apartheid • The official policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites.
1652 • The Dutch settled the Cape Colony in Southern Africa. • Over time they considered themselves more African than European and called themselves Afrikaners. They considered themselves superior to native Africans and used them as slaves until the early 1800 s when the British took control of the Cape Colony and abolished slavery. Early 1800 s in Southern Africa After defeating the black South Africans, the Afrikaners had migrated north of the Orange River, known as the Great Trek, due to the British presence in the Cape Colony.
Early History A Time Line • 1806 – British seize Cape of Good Hope • 1835 – Great Trek • 1856 – Orange Free State (Afrikaner republic) • 1854 – Transvaal (Afrikaner republic) • 1867 – Discovery of Gold • 1886 – Discovery of Diamonds • 1889 – 1902 – The Boer War (British and Dutch settlers)
The Boers • The Boers were white farmers who were descendants of the Dutch. • They migrated from the Cape because of British colonialism and constant border wars between the British and the natives.
Boer War • Native Africans fought alongside the British due to their abolishment of slavery. • The British won the Boer War and after a few years of negotiation with the Afrikaners, combined four colonies (2 Dutch and 2 British) into the Union of South Africa in 1910. • Even though it was a republic, the black South Africans had no rights.
• The Boers and the British ruled together under the Union of South Africa. • In 1948, the National Party was voted into power and instituted a policy of apartheid. • The apartheid was a policy of segregation. http: //www. south-africa-tours-and-travel. com/images/signboard-from-theapartheid-era-apartheid. jpg
Apartheid • Starting in 1948, the Nationalist Government in South Africa enacted laws to define and enforce segregation. With the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was institutionalized. Apartheid "maintained white power by denying political and economic liberty to black South Africans. "
Apartheid Laws • The Population Registration Act, 1950, required that every South African be classified into one of a number of racial "population groups. • The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, 1953 allowed public premises, vehicles and services to be segregated by race, even if equal facilities were not made available to all races.
• The implementation of the policy, later referred to as "separate development, " was made possible by the Population Registration Act of 1950, which put all South Africans into three racial categories: Bantu (black African), White, or Coloured (of mixed race). A fourth category, Asian (Indians and Pakistanis), was added later. How did the new government enforce this new policy?
How it Worked • Under apartheid, people were legally classified into a racial group - the main ones being White, Black, Indian and Colored • They were geographically, and forcibly, separated from each other on the basis of the legal classification. • The Black majority, in particular, legally became citizens of particular "homelands“.
The numbers. . . Blacks Whites Population 19 million 4. 5 million Land allocation 13% 87% Share of national income <20% 75% Minimum taxable income 360 rands 750 rands Doctors/population 1/44, 000 1/400 Infant mortality rate 20%-40% 2. 7% Annual expenditure on education $45 per student Teacher/student ratio 1/60 $696 1/22
A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982.
Apartheid Laws • The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949 forbade marriages between white people and people of other races. • The Natives Land Act, 1913 limited land ownership by black people to 7% of the land area of South Africa. • The Group Areas Act, 1950 (re-enacted in 1957 and 1966) divided urban areas into "group areas" in which ownership and residence was restricted to certain population groups.
Who lives Where? ?
More Restrictions!!! • The Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 and the Promotion of Bantu Self. Government Act of 1959 furthered these divisions between the races by creating ten African "homelands“ to be self-governed by the various “tribes. ” • The Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970 made every black South African a citizen of one of the homelands which eliminated black Africans from South African politics.
Houses in Soweto, a black township in the “homelands. ”
Homelands • Homelands were independent states to which each African was assigned by the government according to the record of origin (which was frequently inaccurate). • All political rights, including voting, held by an African were restricted to the designated homeland. • The idea was that they would be citizens of the homeland, losing their citizenship in South Africa and any right of involvement with the South African Parliament. • Africans living in the homelands needed passports to enter South Africa: aliens in their own country.
SOWETO TOWNSHIP • 20 km FROM JOHANNESBURG • LARGEST BLACK URBAN COMMUNITY COMPRISING THE BLACK COMMUNITIES OF THE SOUTHWESTERN TOWNSHIPS
Young, black South Africans looking in on a game of soccer at an all-white school in Johannesburg. Government spending, about 10 times more for white children than for black, clearly showed the inequality designed to give whites more economic and political power. Poorly trained teachers, overcrowded classrooms, and inadequate recreational facilities were normal for black children, if in fact they had any schooling available at all.
Segregated public facilities in Johannesburg, 1985.
The Symbol of Apartheid The Passbook
A Black South African shows his passbook issued by the Government. Blacks were required to carry passes that determined where they could live and work.
The Passbook – A pass was issued only to a black person with approved work. Spouses and children had to be left behind in non-white areas. Many white households employed blacks as domestic workers, who were allowed to live on the premises— often in small rooms external to the family home. – A pass was issued for one magisterial district (usually one town) confining the holder to that area only.
The Passbook • Being without a valid pass made a person subject to immediate arrest and summary trial, often followed by deportation to the person's homeland. Police vans patrolled the "white" areas to round up the "illegal" blacks.
A Struggle Against Apartheid Important to remember: Throughout the apartheid, there was a movement fighting against it… African National Congress Nelson Mandela- A key character in the fight for democracy -Imprisoned for his political efforts -President of ANC -Released from prison in 1990 -First democratic president of South Africa May 10, 1994 First Democratic Election
A number of black political groups, often supported by sympathetic whites, opposed apartheid using a variety of tactics, including violence, strikes, demonstrations, and sabotage - strategies that often met with severe consequences from the government.
AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO MINORITY WHITE RULE • One Man’s Freedom Fighter is Another Man’s Terrorist • 1912 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE NATIONAL CONGRESS BECOMES THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS—THE ANC • STRIKES, BOYCOTTS AND SYMBOLIC ACTS OF DEFIANCE • 1950 s DEFIANCE CAMPAIGN MASS RESISTANCE— PUBLIC DISOBEDIENCE • 1955 FREEDOM CHARTER
FREEDOM CHARTER 1955 • We, the People of South Africa, declare for all our country and the world to know: • that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of all the people;
REACTIONS TO THE TERRORIST STATE • 1961 SOUTH AFRICA IS EXPELLED FROM THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS • MANDELA – “SPEAR OF THE NATION”— 200 ACTS OF SABOTAGE AGAINST PASS OFFICES, GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, AND POWER SUPPLIES
NELSON MANDELA SENT TO ROBBEN ISLAND • 12 km FROM CAPE TOWN • A PRISON FOR 400 YEARS TO ISOLATE OPPONENTS OF APARTHEID
NELSON MANDELA IN PRISON
Nelson Mandela jailed for 20 years in his fight against Apartheid
Reform • As antiapartheid pressure mounted within and outside of South Africa, the South African government, led by President F. W. de Klerk, (white) began to dismantle the apartheid system in the early 1990 s. • The year 1990 brought a National Party government dedicated to reform and also saw the legalization of formerly banned black congresses (including the ANC —African National Congress) and the release of imprisoned black leaders. • In 1994 the country's constitution was rewritten and free general elections were held for the first time in its history, and with Nelson Mandela's election as South Africa's first black president, the last remnants of the apartheid system were finally outlawed.
Lived to vote in the first racially democratic election 1994
And Become President of South African President Nelson Mandela, center, flanked by his two deputy presidents, Thabo Mbeki, left and F. W. de Klerk, right, celebrate the new constitution, May 8, 1996. (AP/WWP Photo Leon Muller)
Nobel Peace Prize • The Nobel Peace Prize 1993 was awarded jointly to Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"