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AP WORLD HISTORY Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C. E. to c. 1450 *The LEAST YOU NEED TO KNOW, Directly from the AP Board!
Key Concept 3. 1. Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Although Afro-Eurasia and the Americas remained separate from one another, this era witnessed a deepening and widening of old and new networks of human interaction within and across regions. The results were unprecedented concentrations of wealth and the intensification of cross-cultural exchanges. Innovations in transportation, state policies, and mercantile practices contributed to the expansion and development of commercial networks, which in turn served as conduits for cultural, technological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies. Pastoral or nomadic groups played a key role in creating and sustaining these networks. Expanding networks fostered greater interregional borrowing, while at the same time sustaining regional diversity. The prophet Muhammad promoted Islam, a new major monotheistic religion at the start of this period. It spread quickly through practices of trade, warfare, and diffusion characteristic of this period. I. Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks. A. Existing trade routes flourished and promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities. ü The Silk Roads ü The Mediterranean Sea ü The Trans-Saharan ü The Indian Ocean basins
Venice, a “New” Trading City
The Self Destruction of the 1% In the early 14 th century, Venice was one of the richest cities in Europe. At the heart of its economy was the colleganza, a basic form of joint-stock company created to finance a single trade expedition… it opened the economy to new entrants, allowing risk-taking entrepreneurs to share in the financial upside with the established businessmen who financed their merchant voyages… Venice’s elites were the chief beneficiaries. Like all open economies, theirs was turbulent. Today, we think of social mobility as a good thing. But if you are on top, mobility also means competition. In 1315, when the Venetian city-state was at the height of its economic powers, the upper class acted to lock in its privileges, putting a formal stop to social mobility with the publication of the Libro d’Oro, or Book of Gold, an official register of the nobility. If you weren’t on it, you couldn’t join the ruling oligarchy… The political shift, which had begun nearly two decades earlier, was so striking a change that the Venetians gave it a name: La Serrata, or the closure. It wasn’t long before the political Serrata became an economic one, too. Under the control of the oligarchs, Venice gradually cut off commercial opportunities for new entrants. Eventually, the colleganza was banned. The reigning elites were acting in their immediate self-interest, but in the longer term, La Serrata was the beginning of the end for them, and for Venetian prosperity more generally. By 1500, Venice’s population was smaller than it had been in 1330. In the 17 th and 18 th centuries, as the rest of Europe grew, the city continued to shrink. . . By CHRYSTIA FREELAND NY TIMES. COM OCT 13, 2012
Key Concept 3. 1. Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Continued… B. New trade routes centering on Mesoamerica and the Andes developed. C. The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization; use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization. D. Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures like the Grand Canal in China.
Myth, medicine and medieval tastes created a market for the world's first globally traded product By Paul Freedman Yale Global, 11 March 2003 … To the medieval European imagination, the East was exotic and alluring. Medieval maps often placed India close to the… Garden of Eden described in the Bible… As far back as the 7 th century Europeans thought that pepper in India grew on trees "guarded" by serpents that would bite and poison anyone who attempted to gather the fruit. The only way to harvest pepper was to burn the trees, which would drive the snakes underground. . . Only with a report by the merchant Nicolo de' Conti in the early 15 th century do we have a European eyewitness at a pepper harvest on the Malabar Coast… Price and availability of spices in Europe were affected by global factors: from the weather in India to relations between Christian and Muslim powers. While the papacy and the Kingdom of Cyprus attempted to restart the Crusades by prohibiting trade with Egypt, the Venetians and Genoese fought to control that lucrative trade. Traders throughout the Mediterranean bought spices in Alexandria and sometimes ports on the eastern Mediterranean or the Black Sea… The quest for spice was one of the earliest drivers of globalization…
Myth, medicine and medieval tastes created a market for the world's first globally traded product Why go to such extraordinary efforts to procure expensive products from exotic lands? … One widely disseminated explanation for medieval demand for spices was that they covered the taste of spoiled meat. Spices were more expensive than meat, and fresh meat was available, as suggested by extant records of municipal ordinances prohibiting butchers from throwing unwanted animal parts and blood in the streets. However, refrigeration was not available, and some hot spices have been shown to serve as an anti-bacterial agent. Salting, smoking or drying meat were other means of preservation… Most spices used in cooking began as medical ingredients, and throughout the Middle Ages spices were used as both medicines and condiments. . . Merchant guilds that supplied spices were variously known as "spicers, " "apothecaries, " or "pepperers. " Inventories and account books of pharmacies show that such culinary stalwarts as pepper, cinnamon and ginger were sold in many varieties and in different medical prescriptions… More than 100 medieval cookbooks survive today. Spices ordered for the wedding of George "the Rich, " Duke of Bavaria, and Jadwiga of Poland in 1475 included 386 pounds of pepper, 286 pounds of ginger, 257 pounds of saffron, 205 pounds of cinnamon, pounds of cloves, and 85 pounds of nutmeg. Clearly, recipes from the era called for not only large quantities of spices, but also a great variety. Spices such as cinnamon or nutmeg associated with desserts were used in meat and fish dishes. Sugar functioned as a spice during the era…
Popular Medieval Spices Saffron (the world’s most expensive spice!) Cinnamon Black Pepper Grains of Paradise (used in Sam Adams Summer Ale!) Ginger
Caravanserai A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey. The caravanserais were usually built a day's journey apart. The ruins of a caravanserai in Behistun, Iran
Medieval Banking Houses and Hard Currency The Christian prohibition on usury eventually provides an opportunity for… [Jews], barred from most other forms of employment… During the 13 th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. . . Creative accountancy enables them to avoid the Christian sin of usury; interest on a loan is presented in the accounts either as a voluntary gift from the borrower or as a reward for the risk taken. Florence is well equipped for international finance thanks to its famous gold coin, the florin. First minted in 1252, the florin is widely recognized and trusted. It is the hard currency of its day. By the early 14 th century two families in the city, the Bardi and the Peruzzi, have grown immensely wealthy by offering financial services. They arrange for the collection and transfer of money due to great feudal powers, in particular the papacy. They facilitate trade by providing merchants with bills of exchange, by means of which money paid in by a debtor in one town can be paid out to a creditor presenting the bill somewhere else (a principle familiar now in the form of a check). . . In the early 14 th century the family has offices in Barcelona, Seville and Majorca, in Paris, Avignon, Nice and Marseilles, in London, Bruges, Constantinople, Rhodes, Cyprus and Jerusalem! To add to Florence's sense of power, many of Europe's rulers are heavily in debt to the city's bankers. Therein, in the short term, lies the bankers' downfall. In the 1340 s Edward III of England is engaged in the expensive business of war with France, at the start of the Hundred Years' War. He is heavily in debt to Florence, having borrowed 600, 000 gold florins from the Peruzzi and another 900, 000 from the Bardi. In 1345 he defaults on his payments, reducing both Florentine houses to bankruptcy. Florence as a great banking centre survives even this disaster. Half a century later great fortunes are again being made by the financiers of the city. Prominent among them in the 15 th century are two families, the Pazzi and the Medici. –historyworld. net
A Florentine Banking House
An Example of a Trading Organization: The Hanseatic League began as a northern European trading confederation in the middle of the 13 th century. It continued for some 300 years. Its network of alliances grew to 170 cities and it protected its interests from interfering rulers and rival traders with its powerful fleet financed by its members. Only the evolution of nation states and rival international businesses led to its demise three centuries later. The League’s creation reflected the weakness of medieval governments and the divergent interests of city dwellers and the feudal overlords with whom they were often in conflict. In the middle ages, the areas now known as Germany, Poland, the Baltic States, the Netherlands, Belgium and much of Russia consisted of a multitude of territories owing allegiance to a variety of kings and lords, often from remote locations. The main activities of the groups of nobles involved marrying and feuding with one another and raising taxes from their subjects. They were rarely noted for their interest in trade except as a source of taxation. It was for this reason that a number of cities’ prominent merchants came together in a loose confederation whose main aim was to share the risks of trading, the hazards of travel and the problems of dealing with quarrelsome overlords. One of the early provisions of the League dating from 1296, required members to support one another in such conflicts, though a clause in the agreement tactfully added: “If the conflict is against a prince who is lord of one of the cities, this city shall not furnish men but only give money. ”… - Stephen Halliday 2009 History Today
Lubeck, a Hanseatic City
Key Concept 3. 1. Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Continued… E. The expansion of empires facilitated Trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks. ü China ü The Byzantine Empire ü The Caliphates ü The Mongols II. The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects. A. The expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on environmental knowledge and technological adaptations to it. B. Some migrations had a significant environmental impact. ü The migration of Bantu-speaking peoples who facilitated transmission of iron technologies and agricultural techniques in Sub-Saharan Africa ü The maritime migrations of the Polynesian peoples who cultivated transplanted foods and domesticated animals as they moved to new islands C. Some migrations and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of languages throughout a new region or the emergence of new languages.
An Example of environmental knowledge and technological adaptations: Scandinavian Viking Long ships “Dragon-headed longships… could cross the open oceans under sail and then switch to oars for lightning-fast hit-and-run attacks on undefended towns and monasteries. Far surpassing contemporary English or Frankish vessels in lightness and efficiency, longships carried Viking raiders from northern England to north Africa. ” –pbs. org
An Example of Diffusion of Languages: Swahili The Swahili language is basically of Bantu (African) origin. It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic, probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims. The word "Swahili" was used by early Arab visitors to the coast and it means "the coast". Ultimately it came to be applied to the people and the language… Arab and Persian cultures had the greatest influence on the Swahili culture and the Swahili language. "moja" = one, "mbili" = two, "tatu" = three, "nne" = four are of Bantu origin. "sita" = six, "saba" = seven and "tisa" = nine are borrowed from Arabic. "chai" = tea, "achari" = pickle, "serikali" = government are borrowed from Persian.
Key Concept 3. 1. Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Continued… III. Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication. A. Islam, based on the revelations of the prophet Muhammad, developed in the Arabian peninsula. The beliefs and practices of Islam reflected interactions among Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians with the local Arabian peoples. Muslim rule expanded to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and Islam subsequently expanded through the activities of merchants and missionaries. B. In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture. C. The writings of certain interregional travelers illustrate both the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding. D. Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions. E. Increased cross-cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions.
An Example of a Diaspora Community: The Jews
An Example of a Diaspora Community: The Jews Generally, Jews were relatively free and moderately prosperous in Europe during the early Middle Ages. Pope Gregory the Great (591) forbade the forcible conversion of Jews. Both Theodoric the Great (454 -526), ruler of Italy, and Charlemagne (742 -814), the ruler of France and western Germany, invited Jews to live within their kingdoms, mostly for economic reasons. (Recall that Christians needed Jews to be bankers, as they thought usury (money lending for profit) was sinful. With the end of feudalism, Christians claimed the economic functions that the Jews had previously held. In 1492, the Spanish Inquisition began, forcing many Jews to convert, leave (many went to Morocco or Eastern Europe), or pretend to be Catholic. In 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council called by Pope Innocent III, decreed that Jews must wear special dress, badges or distinctive conical hats, to distinguish them from other people. The first of many ritual murder charges started in 1144 in Norwich, England. Jews were charged with blood libels; killing Christian children to use their blood for making unleavened bread (matzah) for Passover. Jews were blamed for the Black Death (often being accused of poisoning wells) and murdered. Throughout Europe, the Jews were gradually confined in ghettos as the Middle Ages progressed. These began in western Europe; another reason why many Jews fled to the east. Additionally, Jewish life flourished in Poland! Polish rulers welcomed Jews during the 13 th and 14 th centuries, issuing charters of legal rights for Jews. During the hundred years of the 15 th century, the Jewish Polish population exploded from about 15, 000 to 150, 000. fcit. usf. edu
An Example of Interregional Travelers: Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta “I have not told half of what I saw. ” –Marco Polo “I have indeed – praise be to God – attained my desire in this world, which was to travel through the earth. . . ” – Ibn Battuta
An Example of Diffusion of Literary, Artistic, or Cultural Traditions: The Influence of Neo-Confucianism in East Asia There was a vigorous revival of Confucianism in the Song period. Confucianism had naturally changed over the centuries since the time of Confucius (ca. 500 BCE). Confucius’s own teachings, recorded by his followers in the Analects, were still a central element, as were the texts that came to be called the Confucian classics, which included early poetry, historical records, moral and ritual injunctions, and a divination manual. But the issues stressed by Confucian teachers changed as Confucianism became closely associated with the state from about 100 BCE on, and as it had to face competition from Buddhism, from the second century CE onward. Confucian teachers responded to the challenge of Buddhist metaphysics by developing their own account of the natural and human world. The revived Confucianism of the Song period (often called Neo-Confucianism) emphasized self-cultivation as a path not only to selffulfillment but to the formation of a virtuous and harmonious society and state. “Original nature is an all‑pervading perfection not contrasted with evil. This is true of what Heaven has endowed in the self. But when it operates in human beings, there is differentiation of good and evil. When humans act in accord with it, there is goodness. When humans act out of accord with it, there is evil. How can it be said that the good is not the original nature? ” BY ZHU XI, a neo-Confician philosopher (1130 -1200)
An Example of the Diffusion of Scientific and Technological Traditions: The return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia In the 9 – 10 th centuries, the mosque schools evolved into universities, the first in Europe, which flourished in every city, drawing Jewish, Christian, and Muslim scholars and students like magnets, from all over the world. Finally, there were the academies, separate from the mosques, the most famous of which were the House of Wisdom and the House of Science, which were libraries, translation centers, and astronomical observatories. . Hakem II extended education to the needy, by building 27 elementary schools in Cordoba for children of poor families…Books originally written in Persia and Syria, became known first in Andalusia. The city produced 60, 000 books a year, facilitated by the use of paper, an invention the Arabs had taken from the Chinese, and developed in factories in every major city. The kings of Castille and Aragon took Arab women for their wives, among them Alfonso IV, Alfonso VII, and Alfonso the Wise (1221 -1284). Arabic works were rapidly rendered into Latin in the translation schools… and not only Greek Classics, but also the Koran, were translated. Under Alfonso, translations were done into… French, as well as Latin. It was largely… Christians who had lived under Arab rule—and… Muslims living under Christian rule—who mediated the language and the culture to the new Christian leaders. Alfonso set up a school where the Arab philosopher Muhamed al-Riquti was to teach Arabs, Christians, and Jews. He also founded a “general school of Arabic and Latin” in Seville, where Christians and Muslims taught science and philosophy. Alfonso commissioned Arab navigators and astronomers to work with him on the “Astronomical Tables, ” and authored a History of Spain. His Cantigas de Santa Maria also shows the strong Arab influence. By Muriel Mirack Weissbach 2001
The Alhambra Palace, Granada, Andalusia
Key Concept 3. 1. Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Continued… IV. There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes. A. New foods and agricultural techniques were adopted in populated areas. B. The spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well established paths of trade and military conquest.
The Spread of Sugar in the middle Ages “In the beginning, on the island of New Guinea, where sugarcane was domesticated some 10, 000 years ago, people picked cane and ate it raw. . . Sugar spread slowly from island to island, finally reaching the Asian mainland around 1000 B. C. By A. D. 500 it was being processed into a powder in India and used as a medicine for headaches, stomach flutters, impotence. . . By 600 the art had spread to Persia, where rulers entertained guests with a plethora of sweets. When Arab armies conquered the region, they carried away the knowledge and love of sugar. . . Marzipan was the rage, ground almonds and sugar sculpted into outlandish concoctions. . . The Arabs perfected sugar refinement and turned it into an industry. The work was brutally difficult. The heat of the fields, the flash of the scythes, the smoke of the boiling rooms, the crush of the mills. By 1500, with the demand for sugar surging, the work was considered suitable only for the lowest of laborers. Many of the field hands were prisoners of war, eastern Europeans captured when Muslim and Christian armies clashed… Perhaps the first Europeans to fall in love with sugar were British and French crusaders… They came home full of visions and stories and memories of sugar. As cane is not at its most productive in temperate climes—it needs tropical, rain-drenched fields to flourish—the first European market was built on a trickle of Muslim trade, and the sugar that reached the West was consumed only by the nobility, so rare it was classified as a spice! But with the spread of the Ottoman Empire in the 1400 s, trade with the East became more difficult. To the Western elite there were few options: deal with the small southern European sugar manufacturers, defeat the Turks, or develop new sources of sugar… In school they call it the age of exploration, the search for territories and islands that would send Europeans all around the world. In reality it was, to no small degree, a hunt for fields where sugarcane would prosper. In 1425 the Portuguese prince known as Henry the Navigator sent sugarcane to Madeira with an early group of colonists. The crop soon made its way to other newly discovered Atlantic islands—the Cape Verde Islands, the Canaries. In 1493, when Columbus set off on his second voyage to the New World, he too carried sugar cane. Thus dawned the age of big sugar, of Caribbean islands and slave plantations, leading, in time, to great smoky refineries on the outskirts of glass cities, to mass consumption, fat kids, obese parents, and men in XXL tracksuits trundling along in electric carts…” by Rich Cohen natgeo. com
The Spread of Sugar in the middle Ages Marzipan fruit made from sugar and ground almonds. Mmmmm
Don’t Forget About Oceania! ü 400 – 700 CE mariners spread sweet potatoes throughout Polynesia ü Hawaii was settled 300 – 600 CE - 12 th – 13 th centuries there was contact between Hawaii, Tahiti, and the Marquesas islands - Hawaii was divided into small kingdoms - Kapu System: “taboo”= things that were sacred/prohibited. Commoners couldn’t approach or even cast a shadow on a high chief! Violators strangled or clubbed to death. ü 1400 CE the 1 st moai (giant statues) were erected on Easter Island Hawaiian Sweet Potatoes
The Moai of Easter Island On average, they stand 13 feet high and weigh 14 tons, human heads-on-torsos carved in the male form from rough hardened volcanic ash…They stand with their backs to the sea and are believed by most archaeologists to represent the spirits of ancestors, chiefs, or other highranking males who held important positions in the history of Easter Island, or Rapa Nui, the name given by the indigenous people to their island in the 1860 s. – nova. org
Key Concept 3. 2. Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions State formation in this era demonstrated remarkable continuity, innovation and diversity in various regions. In Afro-Eurasia, some states attempted, with differing degrees of success, to preserve or revive imperial structures, while smaller, less centralized states continued to develop. The expansion of Islam introduced a new concept — the Caliphate — to Afro-Eurasian statecraft. Pastoral peoples in Eurasia built powerful and distinctive empires that integrated people and institutions from both the pastoral and agrarian worlds. In the Americas, powerful states developed in both Mesoamerica and the Andean region. I. Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged. A. Following the collapse of empires, most reconstituted governments, including the Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties — Sui, Tang, and Song — combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations better suited to the current circumstances.
An Example of a Political Innovation: Tributary Systems Under the Tang Dynasty, Vietnam, Korea, and Tibet become tributary states. A tributary state must pay tribute (money) to ensure “autonomy”.
Key Concept 3. 2. Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions Continued… B. In some places, new forms of governance emerged, including those developed in various Islamic states, the Mongol Khanates, city-states, and decentralized government (feudalism) in Europe and Japan. C. Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions. D. In the Americas, as in Afro-Eurasia, state systems expanded in scope and reach: Networks of city-states flourished in the Maya region and, at the end of this period, imperial systems were created by the Mexica (“Aztecs”) and Inca. II. Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers. ü Between Tang China and the Abbasids ü Across the Mongol empires ü During the Crusades
An Example of Synthesis by States: Chinese Influence on Japan 6 th century Buddhism ----- Zen Buddhism, tea ceremony, haiku 7 th century Government ------ Imperial Court at Nara and then Heian By the 9 th century patriarchy in China ----- patriarchal Japanese family, spread of polygamy among Japanese aristocrats
Key Concept 3. 3. Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences Changes in trade networks resulted from and stimulated increasing productive capacity, with important implications for social and gender structures and environmental processes. Productivity rose in both agriculture and industry. Rising productivity supported population growth and urbanization but also strained environmental resources and at times caused dramatic demographic swings. Shifts in production and the increased volume of trade also stimulated new labor practices, including adaptation of existing patterns of free and coerced labor. Social and gender structures evolved in response to these changes. I. Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production in many regions. A. Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations. B. In response to increasing demand in Afro-Eurasia foreign luxury goods, crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions. C. Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export; industrial production of iron and steel expanded in China.
An Example of Technological Innovation: The Chinampa System With the great city of Tenochtitlan built on swampy but rich ground, the chinampas became key to the food production of the Aztecs… Plots about 30 m by 2. 5 m were staked out on the lake bed. A fence was woven between the stakes, and the area would be filled in with mud and vegetation. The next rectangle would be parallel to this one, with room for a canal in between, where canoes could pass through. These canals of course offered irrigation, and provided food of their own such as fish and water fowl. -aztechistory. com
Key Concept 3. 3. Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences Continued… II. The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline, and with periods of increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks. A. Multiple factors contributed to the declines of urban areas in this period. ü Invasions ü Disease ü The decline of agricultural productivity ü The Little Ice Age B. Multiple factors contributed to urban revival. ü The end of invasions ü The availability of safe and reliable transport ü The rise of commerce and the warmer temperatures between 800 ü and 1300 ü Increased agricultural productivity and subsequent rising ü population ü Greater availability of labor also contributed to urban growth
Key Concept 3. 3. Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences Continued… C. While cities in general continued to play the roles they had played in the past as governmental, religious, and commercial centers, many older cities declined at the same time that numerous new cities emerged to take on these established roles. III. Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life. A. As in the previous period, there were many forms of labor organization. ü Free peasant agriculture ü Nomadic pastoralism ü Craft production and guild organization ü Various forms of coerced and unfree labor ü Government-imposed labor taxes ü Military obligations
Key Concept 3. 3. Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences Continued… B. As in the previous period, social structures were shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies. Patriarchy persisted; however, in some areas, women exercised more power and influence, most notably among the Mongols and in West Africa, Japan, and Southeast Asia. C. New forms of coerced labor appeared, including serfdom in Europe and Japan and the elaboration of the mit’a in the Inca Empire. Free peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts. The demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased, particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean. ü China ü The Byzantine Empire D. The diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neo-Confucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure.
HW Questions 1. What was Chrystia Freeland’s main points about medieval Venice? Do you think she is biased or are her arguments objective? 2. What was Paul Freeman’s arguments that spices were the first “globally traded product”? 3. Describe the history of Florentine banking in 1 paragraph or less. How did it give rise to the Medici family? 4. Describe the history of Jews in medieval Europe in 1 paragraph or less. 5. What was the purpose of the Hanseatic League? Be specific. 6. Describe the history of sugar in 1 paragraph or less. Also, do you agree with Rich Cohen that sugar was the true cause of the Age of Exploration? 7. Were there more changes or continuities within period 3? Focus on at least 2 different regions. 8. Finish your Period 3 chart. *Include Neo-Confucianism. 9. Complete your Period 3 visual timeline (see the next slide).
Period 3 Visual Timeline 600 CE – 1450 CE You must create a visual timeline for the following events. Keep it simple! You must include the dates and events as listed below along with an appropriate visual, but you do NOT need to include any additional information. Date 800 CE 1095 CE Event Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day The Vikings discovered “Vinland” in Newfoundland, Canada 1200 CE 1215 CE 1279 CE 1325 CE 1400 CE Pope Urban II called for a Crusade to regain the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks The Incan capital of Cuzco was built The Magna Carta was signed Kublai Khan conquered the Song Dynasty in China Tenochtitlán was settled by the Aztecs The Moai statues were erected on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) 1434 Cosimo de’ Medici commissioned Donatello to sculpt “The David” 1453 The Ottomans conquered Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul
Key Vocabulary Andalusia Bantu Ibn Battuta Blood Libel Caravanserai Chinampas Colleganza Hanseatic League Iberia Jewish Diaspora Kapu system La Serrata Lombards Moai Marco Polo Neo-Confucianism Swahili Tributary States Usury Viking Long Ships