- Slides: 22
AP World History Chapter 19 Islamic Gunpowder Empires
Ottoman & Safavids P. E. R. S. I. A
Political • Defeat of the Seljuks by the Mongols makes it possible for the Ottoman Turks to emerge and Dominate. • The Sultans and their Court use factions against each other to maintain power. • Vizier oversees a large portion of the Bureaucracy. • Ottoman decline begins in the 1600’s with the defeat at the Siege of Vienna, (1529, 1683). • Decline because they are over extended, infrastructure is insufficient, and the empire was built on conquest. • Decline caused also by regional leaders divert revenue. • Janissaries stop military innovation. • Safavids defeated by Ottomans in 1514. 1529
Economic • Constantinople becomes the Commercial center of the Islamic world. • The Turkish government controls trade, crafts and Artisan guilds. (Government Monopoly)
Religion • Sufi preachers, mystics spread Islam. • Shi’ism modified and spread to entire empire of the Ottomans.
Social • State geared to warfare and expansion. • Turkic horsemen become warrior nobility. • Janissary infantry – Conscripted youth from conquered peoples.
Intellectual • Constantinople restored and a flowering of Ottoman culture occurs. • The Suleymaniye mosque is built in the 16 th century. • Elites support massive building projects, i. e. Mosques.
Area • Expansion into Middle East, North Africa, Balkans in Europe, and Dominate Mediterranean. • Portuguese outflank Middle East trade Sail around Africa into Indian Ocean Victories over Muslim navies.
Decline • Inflation caused by New World bullion hurt the Ottomans. • Comes at same time as loss of revenue from control of trade. • Siege of Vienna 1683. (Epic Fail)
Compare and Contrast Ottomans • • • Warrior Aristocracies Rural estates of rich Imperial workshops Artisans patronized International trade Women lose freedom Safavids • • • Warrior Aristocracies Rural estates of rich Imperial workshops Artisans patronized International trade Women lose freedom Geography , location and Mongol invasion of Safavids Is the big difference.
Mughal P. E. R. S. I. A
Political • • Babur is driven from Afghanistan and invades India in 1526. Defeats Muslim Lodi dynasty. Defeats Hindu Confederation. Akbar reconciles with Hindus. How?
Economic • • Akbar interested in Indian Ocean trade. Welcomed foreign trade. Items traded, Horses and Bullion. Produced Cotton and Silk Textiles.
Religion • Akbar creates a new religion Din-i-Ilahi to try and reconcile with Hindus. • Din-i-Ilahi is a blend of Islam and Hinduism. It teaches Toleration.
Social • Mix of Islamic beliefs and the Caste System.