- Slides: 15
AP U. S. History Chapter 2 By Jack Duncan
England Begins » England had little interest in overseas colonies during the first half of the 1500 s because it allied itself with Spain. » King Henry VII launched the English Protestant Reformation in the 1530 s. » Protestant Elizabeth becomes Queen of England, and with Protestantism dominant , Catholic Spain and England are rivals. » England crushes rebellious Catholics in Ireland
Empire Sprouts » English buccaneers plundered Spanish ships and netted precious metals on the high seas » 1583 Sir Humphrey Gilbert attempted to establish a colony but it failed when he died » 1585 Sir Walter Raleigh started expedition on Roanoke Island, and it failed as well » Spain sends an Armada to invade England, but a storm destroys what the English navy could not. » England now had a popular leader, unified religion and a sense of national (manifest) density.
Pre-Colonization » England’s population increased from 3 million people in 1550 to 4 million in 1600 » Landlords began enclosing land for sheep grazing » Large landless population drifted in the countryside » Laws gave land inheritance to eldest sons » Joint-stock companies arose, where investors pooled capitol for interprise
Jamestown » Joint-stock know as Virginia Company receives a charter for settlement in the new world. » Charter guaranteed settlers would receive the same rights as Englishmen in the home country » In 1606, three ships disembarked for New World, and established a settlement at Jamestown. » Colonists died by disease, and hunger searching for gold. » Captain John Smith created rule “He who shall not work shall not eat. ” » Settlers tried to leave in 1610, but were sent back by the new governor Lord De La Warr.
War with Indians » Chief Powhatan controlled region with Powhatan’s Confederacy » Lord De La Warr declared war against Indians on his arrival » First Anglo-Powhatan War concluded in 1614 with marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas » Indians launched a series of raids against Jamestown in 1622, killing 347 settlers and John Rolfe. » In 1644, the Second Anglo-Powhatan war began in an Indian attempt to dislodge the settlers. » Peace treaty of 1646 removed Powhatan’s tribe from ancestral land
Effects of Colonies » Powhatan’s fate foreshadowed other natives’ » Horse benignly allowed tribes to become nomadic, such as the Sioux plains indians » Disease annihilated entire cultures by killing tribe elders and disrupting oral traditions » Europeans traded firearms and the such with Indians in exchange for furs and hides.
Virginia’s Tobacco » John Rolfe perfected the methods for raising and curing the tobacco plant, and removed bitter taste from it as well. » England soon requested large quantities of it. » Tobacco ravaged soil in successive years fueling the demand for more land » More land required more labor, and in 1619 a Dutch vessel sold twenty Africans in Jamestown » 1619, House of Burgesses was established as a mini- Parliament by the Virginia colony
Seems Like A Paradox!
Maryland » Fourth English colony and second plantation based colony » Found in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, he wished to create a refuge for Catholics » Lord Baltimore established large estates for Catholic relatives » Maryland become tobacco growers as well » In 1649, Maryland’s inhabitations passed the Act of Tolerance » It provided religion tolerance for those who accepted the divinty of Christ
West Indies » England successfully captured sever Caribbean islands while Spain was distracted by the Dutch » These islands produced sugar instead of tobacco » Unlike tobacco, sugar required more strenuous labor to achieve the desired product » Sugar lords imported slaves from Africa to work their fields » Their Barbados slave code gave masters complete control over the enslaved Africans
Carolina » After a civil war in England during the 1640 s, the new king Charles II granted his court favorites large expanse of land in the New World » Carolina prospered by close ties to West Indies » Original colonies came from Barbados with the slave codes » Rice emerged as the staple crop of Carolina after much experimentation » Carolina colonists soon paid high prices for Africans with the skill to work the rice patties » Spanish Florida despised the Northern Englishmen, and launched a series of wars against them
North Carolina » Squatted upon by the outcasts and undesirables of the older Carolina » Earned a reputation for tolerance of religion and being hospitable to pirates » When Indians attacked in the Tuscarora Warin 1711, but were defeated by the South and North Carolinians » Four years later, the South Carolinians defeated the Yamasee Indians, thus removing the last few of the tribes of the eastern coastal areas.
Georgia » Created 126 years after Virginia and 52 years after Pennsylvania » Georgia was made as a buffer state against Spanish Florida » Haven for debtors and was determined now to be a slave state » Religious tolerance for all Christians but Catholics » Missionaries arrived to convert Natives and debtors alike
Plantations » Southern colonies- Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia- all thrived by the exportation of agricultural products » Slavery became the major form of labor in all of these colonies » Colonies provided a degree of tolerance for religious, but the Church of England was the dominant faith; less so in North Carolina. » Rivers to the interior provide the colonists a predetermined route in which grow occurred