AP GOVT – 11/7/14 Objective: SWBAT understand the role that media plays in the modern political environment of the US. Agenda: § Bell Ringer § Final Paper/Project discussion § Start Lecture/Notes over Mass Media (Ch. 12)
BELL RINGERS Most forms of economic activity are now included under: A) First Amendment freedoms. B) interstate commerce. C) the doctrine of implied powers. D) the reserved powers of the states. E) compact theory. A Supreme Court decision that upheld limits on contributions to candidates but struck down limits on how much candidates could spend on their own campaigns was: Mc. Connell v. FEC Citizens United v. FEC Buckley v. Valeo Mc. Culloch v. Maryland Madison v. Marbury
BELL RINGERS (CONT. ) Over the past 20 years, reforms of the presidential nomination process have had which of the following effects? A. The nomination process in both parties has become less democratic and open B. The number of Black delegates at Republican national conventions has grown substantially C. The number of female delegates and minority-group delegates at Democratic national conventions has grown substantially D. The number of of candidates willing and able to seek the nomination has grown substantially. E. None of the above Public monies are used to help finance which of the following campaigns? I. Presidential II. Congressional III. Gubernatorial A. I only B. II only C. I and II only D. II and III only E. I, II, and III
THE MASS MEDIA AND THE ROLE IT PLAYS
THE MASS MEDIA Media Events: § Events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless look spontaneous. Media events can be staged by almost anybody. Other items to consider: § 60% presidential campaign spending is TV ads § Image making / news management is important, especially for presidents Policy Agenda: § The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time. Policy Entrepreneurs: § People who invest their political “capital” in an issue. § All depend on good images and good will.
THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA First of all, what is the “media” It’s any form of mass communication including: § Newspapers § Radio § Television § Magazines § the Internet
IT’S ROLE Most people’s understanding of government and politics comes from the media !!
MEDIA HISTORY The US media has more freedom than a lot of European countries The US has a long history of private ownership of media but it has two potential limits 1 2 They have to make a profit and sometimes make up stories to entice readerships. Some truth to it but it’s very complicated Media bias could be an issue if reporters and editors all shared the same viewpoints
MEDIA HISTORY In the early days the political parties controlled the press but changes in technology and society created the popular press Telegraph, high speed presses and population concentrated in cities 1848 the AP showed up (Associated Press) which provided objective reporting and equal distribution of information
AP GOVT – 11/10/14 Objective: SWBAT understand the role that the media has on the political process. Agenda: § § Housekeeping Tomorrow’s Assembly – Behavior, Appropriate Qs, etc. Bell Ringer Notes over the Media Bell Ringer: § Video § Explain Ms. Goodwin’s reasoning on modern day muckrakers and how they compare to muckrakers in the past.
STILL SOME CRAZY STUFF OUT THERE Even so, the publishers views were reflected in the papers Hearst and Pulitzer and Yellow Journalism helped start the Spanish/American War in 1898 Clearly there was a profit to be made in criticizing the government and sensational news reporting!!!
MAGAZINES The middle class favored progressive periodicals (magazines) Creation of Muckrakers - investigative reporting Readers were more sophisticated and educated Today, though, national magazines focusing on just politics account for only a very small percentage of total magazines
PRINT MEDIA-(NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES) Pecking Order § New York Times, Washington Post, LA Times, Chicago Tribune § Smaller papers reprint the big stories TV and the internet are causing newspaper sales to decline
BRING ON THE RADIO!! Dawn of the electronic media in the 1920 s Politicians could reach voters directly but it was also easy for listeners to “turn them off” TV in the 1940 s has eventually created short “sound bites” of info and made it harder for people to get a real understanding of events Now have cable, satellite, magazine shows and too many news programs to list “narrowcasting” is broadcasting to a segmented audience, a target group only!!
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIA POLITICS The Broadcast Media § Television (not cable or satellite) and radio § Brought government and politics into people’s homes § Made the politicians more aware of their appearance § Generally the top source of news for most Americans, and most believable
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIA POLITICS Herbert Hoover (1929 -1933)-no media involvement in politics Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933 -1945)- invented modern media politics/Fireside Chats § Gave press conferences twice a week § First to use the radio extensively § Press respected FDR Until the 1960 s the press respected the government § Didn’t report private lives § Impact of Vietnam War and Watergate Scandal § Clinton-Lewinsky Scandal § Investigative Journalism
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIA POLITICS Investigative journalism - Use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams and schemes - Watergate is an example - Contributes to a negative view of government and politics - The media serves as a watchdog, which may restrain government
GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF THE BROADCAST MEDIA § 1934: Federal Communications Commission was created § Prevents Monopolies § Conducts exams over goals and performance § Stations must benefit society to get a license § Fair treatment rules provide equal airtime to both candidates
ADD THE INTERNET Increasingly important as almost 50% of American households have access to it It’s free and is playing a larger role in politics Almost every candidate has a web site It easily facilitates communication between candidates and voters as well as with political activists
POLITICAL MAXIMS OF MEDIA RELATIONS All secrets become public knowledge. The bigger the secret, the sooner it will leak. All stories written about me are inaccurate; all stories written about my opponent are completely accurate. The better the news, the higher ranking the official who announces it. Always release bad news on Friday or Saturday; fewer people will notice it. § Taking out the trash Never argue with a person who buys ink by the barrel.
WHAT DOES THE MEDIA DO? 1 2 3 Gatekeeper - influences what subjects become national issues and for how long Scorekeeper - tracks political reputations as well as elections. Momentum in the media is vital during elections season!! Watchdog - investigate officials and expose scandals!! Need we mention Watergate? ?
RULES OVER THE MEDIA No prior restraint - can’t stop a story Confidentiality of sources usually NOT allowed, especially if it bears on a crime Licensing of broadcast media Equal time laws for candidates including prices of commercial air time Fairness doctrine was abolished in 1987 and has allowed the rise of controversial shows like Rush Other rules around elections
SO, IS THE MEDIA BIASED? Generally more liberal than the average person But public believes it more than that!! Talk radio is predominately conservative Many more conservative media outlets recently including Fox News and shows like Rush Selective attention: people only believe or remember what they want to Candidates believe the media including Johnson who gave up on Vietnam after the press did
GOVERNMENT AND NEWS The president is the most covered Congress coverage not equal to President and they are resentful!! Senate more open than House § More coverage for Senators § 100 vs. 435 § States vs. Small districts C-Span covers all floor action Lots of leaks to the press Why? ? Competition Not “illegal” Decentralized power
REPORTING THE NEWS Presenting the News § Most news coverage is superficial § Sound Bites: Short video clips of approximately 15 seconds or less. Figure 7. 2
JOURNALISTIC TERMS Beat- Specific locations from which news emanates, such as Congress or the White House. Trial Balloons- An intentional news leak for the purpose of assessing the political reaction.
ADVERSARIAL PRESS Press and government fighting each other since Vietnam, Watergate and Iran-Contra Competition for journalistic awards Media cynicism has created an era of “attack journalism” and that cynicism mirrors the public’s view People think media has too much influence and the public is down on big business – the media is big business
GOVERNMENT FIGHTS BACK Big staffs of media people working for Congress and the president Press releases – canned news Leaks and stories only go to “favorite” reporters On-record, off-record information Presidential rewards and punishments for reporters based on their stories
NEWS ABOUT THE NEWS (4: 26) http: //www. ted. com/talks/alisa_miller_shares_the_news_abo ut_the_news. html