Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Natural Selection at Work Learning

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Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria: Natural Selection at Work Learning Goals: I will be able to

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria: Natural Selection at Work Learning Goals: I will be able to explain the processes of natural selection in terms of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms,

Bacteria are everywhere • Bacteria are single-celled organisms that grow in populations called colonies.

Bacteria are everywhere • Bacteria are single-celled organisms that grow in populations called colonies. • Bacteria are prokaryotic cells (lacking a membrane bound nucleus) • Ex: E. Coli and Streptococcus Pictures taken with an electron microscope

What are antibiotics? • Powerful medicines that treat bacterial infections • They work by

What are antibiotics? • Powerful medicines that treat bacterial infections • They work by either killing bacteria or preventing growth and reproduction of bacteria

How do bacteria become resistant? • Genes for resistance can emerge in a bacterial

How do bacteria become resistant? • Genes for resistance can emerge in a bacterial population spontaneously (genetic mutation) • At this point, they are considered neutral mutations (not resulting in an advantage or disadvantage) • If an antibiotic is given, and the ‘mutated’ bacteria are resistant to it, the mutation is now considered abeneficial mutation

Natural Antibiotic Resistance • Mutations allowing for bacteria to grow in the presence of

Natural Antibiotic Resistance • Mutations allowing for bacteria to grow in the presence of antibiotics already exists in the bacterial population. • Not all bacterial cells within a population are identical • Like a population of humans, they all contain slight differences in their DNA Why do you think this may be a good idea for the bacteria? -survival of the fittest

What has changed that allows for the bacteria to evolve so quickly? THINK PAIR

What has changed that allows for the bacteria to evolve so quickly? THINK PAIR SHARE

Can the misuse of antibiotics result in resistant bacteria? • Antibiotics are prescribed by

Can the misuse of antibiotics result in resistant bacteria? • Antibiotics are prescribed by doctors to fight bacterial infections. • Antibiotics do not treat viral infections! • Why is it important to finish your prescription?

Tuberculosis • TB mainly affects your lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis), and coughing is often the

Tuberculosis • TB mainly affects your lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis), and coughing is often the only indication of infection initially. • In the United States, cases of tuberculosis began declining steadily in the 1940 s and 1950 s mainly because of antibiotic therapy and improved public health programs. • TB is a re-emerging bacterial lung infection • World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that rates of tuberculosis resistant to multiple drugs are now at their highest level ever. (Reuters Health. Feb 28, 2008. “Drug resistant tuberculosis reaches new high”) Mycobacterium tuberculosis TB lung infection

How can we prevent bacterial growth? • We try to prevent the growth of

How can we prevent bacterial growth? • We try to prevent the growth of some bacteria on our bodies and in our homes. • What are some common products you use on a regular basis for cleaning? – – – Soaps (hand soap, face wash) Toothpaste/mouthwash Dish soap Laundry detergent Mops and sponges • Most if not all contain a chemical called Triclosan used to prevent bacterial growth.

Other products containing Triclosan • • Deodorant Cosmetics Shave cream First aid sprays and

Other products containing Triclosan • • Deodorant Cosmetics Shave cream First aid sprays and creams Paints Floor and wall coverings Furniture Children’s toys and kitchen gadgets www. beyondpesticides. org

Are we stimulating the evolution of resistant bacteria with the use of antibacterial products?

Are we stimulating the evolution of resistant bacteria with the use of antibacterial products? Watch: “What Causes Antibiotic Resistance” http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=znnp-Ivj 2 ek Thinking Questions: 1) When non-antibiotic resistant bacteria are killed off, what benefit is there for the antibiotic resistant ones? 2) Why is it better to try to use less antibacterial products? 3) Do some mutations for antibiotic resistance have to exist in bacteria prior to giving antibiotics in order for antibiotic resistance to develop? Explain

HOW DID WE DO? Learning Goals: I will be able to explain the processes

HOW DID WE DO? Learning Goals: I will be able to explain the processes of natural selection in terms of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms,