Antibiotic Resistance 1 http iconsinmedicine wordpress com Learning

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Antibiotic Resistance 1 http: //iconsinmedicine. wordpress. com/

Antibiotic Resistance 1 http: //iconsinmedicine. wordpress. com/

Learning Targets • What strategies do bacteria use to fight streptomycin? • Where do

Learning Targets • What strategies do bacteria use to fight streptomycin? • Where do these strategies come from? 2

Antibiotic Resistance • Different bacteria use different resistance strategies. • Some bacteria use multiple

Antibiotic Resistance • Different bacteria use different resistance strategies. • Some bacteria use multiple strategies. http: //laboratory-manager. advanceweb. com/Features/Articles/Tackling-Antibiotic- 3

Bacillus megaterium’s Resistance Strategies Strategy 1: Actively pump antibiotic out of cell. Efflux Pumps

Bacillus megaterium’s Resistance Strategies Strategy 1: Actively pump antibiotic out of cell. Efflux Pumps Cell Level: DNA Level: Mutation that causes overexpression of gene for pumps more efflux pumps in cell membrane. 4

Bacillus megaterium’s Resistance Strategies Strategy 2: Ribosome shape changes slightly and antibiotic can no

Bacillus megaterium’s Resistance Strategies Strategy 2: Ribosome shape changes slightly and antibiotic can no longer bind to it. Cell Level: DNA Level: Mutation in ribosomal RNA gene 5

Summary Check Point • What are the two strategies Bacillus megaterium uses to fight

Summary Check Point • What are the two strategies Bacillus megaterium uses to fight against antibiotics? • Where did these strategies come from? 6

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The Rest of the Story. . http: //novabay. com/blog-post/growing-crisis-antibiotic-resistance-get-can-done 8

The Rest of the Story. . http: //novabay. com/blog-post/growing-crisis-antibiotic-resistance-get-can-done 8

Plasmids • Plasmids have genes for antibiotic resistance. Streptomycin Resistance Gene 9

Plasmids • Plasmids have genes for antibiotic resistance. Streptomycin Resistance Gene 9

Lateral Gene Transfer 10 Image Source: http: //www. evolution-textbook. org/content/free/figures/07_EVOW_Art/19_EVOW_CH 07. jpg

Lateral Gene Transfer 10 Image Source: http: //www. evolution-textbook. org/content/free/figures/07_EVOW_Art/19_EVOW_CH 07. jpg

Summary • Plasmids reproduce and move into surrounding bacteria. • Process is called lateral

Summary • Plasmids reproduce and move into surrounding bacteria. • Process is called lateral gene transfer. • How does lateral gene transfer make antibiotic resistance an even BIGGER problem? 11

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Extra slides beyond this point 13

Extra slides beyond this point 13

Natural Selection Model Over time, mutations occur in the population. Antibiotics Introduced Only resistant

Natural Selection Model Over time, mutations occur in the population. Antibiotics Introduced Only resistant bacteria survive. Resistant bacteria reproduce. 14

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Natural Selection Review Image Source: Health. Decide. orcahealth. com 16

Natural Selection Review Image Source: Health. Decide. orcahealth. com 16