- Slides: 17
Anti anxiety drugs
Antianxiety drugs �Anti anxiety drugs, also known as minor tranquilizers and anxiolytics.
Classification of anti anxiety drugs �Barbiturates �Non barbiturate, non-benzodiazepine anti anxiety drugs �Benzodiazepines
Classification �Barbiturates : it can be divided into four main types: - Long acting - Intermediate acting - Short acting - Ultra short acting
�Long acting: Duration of action is more than 8 hours. Example: Phenobarbital. �Intermediate acting: Duration of action is 5 - 8 hours Example: Amobarbital and pentobarbital
�Short acting: duration of action is 1 -5 hours. Example: Secobarbital �Ultra short acting: duration of action is less than one hour. Example: Thiopentone and Methohexital
�Barbiturates are no longer used as anti anxiety agents. �They produce multiple side effects such as excessive sedation, respiratory and circulatory depression, dependence, withdrawal symptoms and potential for use in suicide.
Non barbiturates, nonbenzodiazepine drugs �Carbamates- Meprobamate �Piperidinediones- Glutethimide �Alcohols – Ethanol, Chlorhydrate �Quinazoline derivatives – Methaqualone �Antihistamines- hydroxyzine, promethazine
Contd. . Others �Antipsychotics: Thioridazine, Olanzapine, Quetiapine �Anti depressants: SSRISs, SNRIs �Beta blockers: Propranolol
Benzodiazepine INDICATIONS �Generalized anxiety disorder: adjustment disorder �Panic disorder, agoraphobia, school phobia �Agitated depression �Short term treatment of insomnia
�Night mares, premedication in anaesthesia �Anticonvulsant use �Treatment of alcohol and other drug withdrawal syndromes �Acute mania, Antipsychotic induced akathesia �Emergency management of acute psychosis �Narcoanalysis or abreaction
Classification of benzodiazepines �Very short acting drugs �Short acting drugs �Long acting drugs
Very short acting drugs : �Midazolam �Triazolam Short acting drugs: �Alprazolam �Lorazepam �Oxazepam
Long acting drugs: �Chlorazepate �Chlordiazepoxide �Diazepam �Flurazepam �Nitrazepam
Side effects of benzodiazepines �Nausea, vomiting, weakness, epigastric pain, diarrhoea, vertigo, blurring of vision, body aches, urinary incontinence, impotence, sedation, ataxia, dry mouth, retrograde amnesia( rare), disinhibited behaviour , dependence, withdrawal symptoms
Signs and Symptoms of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal �Anxiety, Tremor, Irritability, Depersonalization , Insomnia, Myoclonus, Nausea, Delirium, Difficulty concentrating, Seizures.
anti anxiety drugs: Newer drugs �Buspirone �Zopiclone �Zalpelon