- Slides: 28
Anthropology of Migration
Anthropology of Migration 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Migration Studies Categories of Migration International Migration Trends Why do people move? New Immigrants Post 1960’s Immigration to the US Migration Politics
Migration Studies (subfield of cultural anthropology) Ø Multi-sited fieldwork = conduct research in more than one location (ex. in Nigeria, then in the US with NI immigrants) Ø Macro and Micro perspectives = focus on a small town or village AND national/global economic and political perspective Ø Applied anthropology = policy, programs, aid, improving peoples’ lives, etc.
Categories of Migration Ø Internal = movement within national boundaries (ex. Rural to urban migration) Ø International = movement between national boundaries (ex. 100 million people live outside their home country today, 2% of world’s population) Ø Transnational = movement back and forth between national boundaries (ex. Mexican immigrants in CA)
International Migration Trends Ø Has grown throughout the world since 1945 (end of WWII) and again since the mid-1980 s. Ø 35 million people from developing countries migrated to developed nations in past 30 years. Ø US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina = most popular countries for early international immigration Ø Early 20 th c. immigration policy is labeled “white immigration” because they explicitly limited nonwhite immigration.
International Migration (cont. ) 1960 s = Canada focused on skills & experience Ø 1973 = “White Australia” policy ended Ø 1980 s and 1990 s = US, CA, and Australia experienced large-scale immigration from Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean Ø Ø Today = immigrants to EU increasing, esp. from Asia l Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia l Turkey is receiving immigrants (from Bulgaria, Kurdish and Iranian refugees) and Turks migrate out (to Germany) l Millions of Palestinian refugees moved to Jordan and Lebanon. l Jewish Immigrants from EU, N. Africa, US, & Russia moved to Israel.
WHY DO PEOPLE MOVE? 1. Wage Labor Migration = for work, for specific period of time (35 million today) l Asian women = fastest-growing group: domestic servants, nurses, teacher (Not allowed to marry or have a child in their work country!) l From: Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, To: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia
WHY DO PEOPLE MOVE? Displacement = people are evicted from their homes, communities, or countries and forced to move elsewhere 2. l l l Refugees = victims of persecution on basis of race, religion, nationality, ethnicity, gender, political views (More than 10 million people: in 2000, 1/500 people were refugees!) Internally displaced persons (IDPs) = fastest growing, forced to leave their home but remain in their country (about 20 million people) AF has highest #, Sudan about 4. 5 million IDP problem = not international, so no UN aid. Dr. Francis Deng is helping as UN rep, miserable conditions with no health care or schools, victims of development projects!
WHY DO PEOPLE MOVE? Institutional Migrants = voluntary or involuntary movement into social institutions, such as: monks/nuns, elderly, prisoners, boarding school or college students, soldiers 3. l l Mental stress risks Health risks
“NEW IMMIGRANTS” TO US AND CANADA Ø New Immigrants = international migrants who have moved since: Ø 1965 amendments to the Immigration and Naturalization Act: more skilled workers from developing nations, “family reunification” (Asia, L. Am. , Caribbean, E. EU and Russia) US visas: 1. Immigrant (residence, can work & apply for citizenship) 2. Non-immigrant (tourists & students, limited time, no working privileges) Ø
“NEW IMMIGRANTS” 3 trends since the 1990 s: 1. Globalization = More nations involved in international migration, more cultural diversity in all nations 2. Acceleration = Numbers of migrants growing in all regions 3. Feminization = Women are increasingly migrating to and from all regions, and are becoming the majority of migrants
Post 1960’s Immigration to US Ø Latin America & Caribbean l l l Mexico Dominican Republic El Salvador Asia Ø l l l Korea Vietnam India Former Soviet Union Ø Africa Ø
New Immigrants from Latin America & the Caribbean Ø 2000 census: Latinos totaled c. 36 million people (12. 5% of US population) Ø LA, Miami, San Antonio, NY = Latinos are largest minority group Ø 3 largest subgroups: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans , and Cubans (then Dominican Republic, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Peru)
Mexican Immigrants Ø 2006: about 10 -15 million Mexican immigrants in US, largest # of foreign-born immigrants in US Ø 1990 -2000 = the # doubled Ø Most common destination states: CA, TX, IL (then GA, NC) Ø MX is leading source of illegal immigration
Dominicans l l l l l one of the fastest immigrant groups in US Concentrated in Washington Heights, NYC Mostly middle and upper-class Hope to return home “chain migration” = first wave of immigrants attracts relatives and friends Manufacturing & garment industries, retail & wholesale trade Competitive with newer immigrants from MX and Central America Highest poverty rate in NYC (37%), mostly women-headed households w/children Gender gap in wages, but still better than home
Salvadorans Ø 4 th largest Latino population in the US Ø Civil war from 1979 -1989 = major reason for emigration Ø Most war refugees settled in NY (esp. Long Island) Ø Many poor Salvadorans entered illegally across the MX border Ø Service work: nannies, maids, restaurants, caregivers, gardening, construction, pool cleaning
New Immigrants from East Asia: Koreans Ø Before 1965: Korean immigrants were wives of US servicemen & children adopted by US parents Ø 1962: South Korean govt. encouraged massive emigration for economic opportunity, family reunification Ø 1985 -1987: more than 35, 000 Koreans immigrated to US per year (S. Korea was largest immigrant source after MX and Philippines) Ø 1945 -1951: Many N. Koreans escaped communist N. Korea to live in S. Korea as displaced refugees
New Immigrants from East Asia: Koreans l l l Entrepreneurs, Christian, middle-class 1990 s = # of lower-class immigrants increased Many moved to LA (Whites were less than 40%. Asian Americans & Latinos were 50%. ) South Central LA: Black, Latino, & Korean American people Conflict over politics & liquor store ownership led to 1992 riots: 187 Korean liquor stores were damaged (among 1000 s of businesses), 1/3 of all deaths were Latinos
New Immigrants from South East Asia: Vietnamese Ø Post-war 1970 s = over 1. 25 million refugees relocated to US, Canada, Australia, France, Germany, UK Ø 3 rd largest Asian American minority in US Ø 3 subgroups: l 1975 Elite: US employees & members of S. Vietnamese govt. & military, left before communism, intact families, financial assistance, English skills, good jobs
New Immigrants from South East Asia: Vietnamese l l “Boat People” : came to US after Vietnam. China conflict of 1978, rural, lived under communism, dangerous exit through Cambodia (over 50% died), refugees in Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Hong Kong before US, no/low English skills, depressed US economy of 1980 s Ethnic Chinese: distinct class of entrepreneurs in Vietnam, arrived as boat people, left in 1987, difficult time adjusting in US
New Immigrants from South Asia: Hindus from India Ø 1965: first wave of South Asians, mostly male professionals from India Ø NYC: largest population of Indians in US Ø First wave professions: medicine, engineering, management Ø Later waves: less educated, convenience stores, hotel/motel ownership, licensed cab drivers (Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis)
New Immigrants from South Asia: Hindus from India Ø “better-off” immigrant group: value children’s education, higher education, small families in US, invest in social advancement Ø Hindu temples: pass on heritage to next generation, including language l Ganesha Temple in NY: founded in 1997, pilgrimage destination for Hindus in NY
New Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Ø 1991: collapse of Soviet Union into 15 separate countries Ø Over 9 million people moved through E. Europe and Central Asia Ø Since 1988: largest refugee group to enter the US Ø Soviet Jews: large proportion of refugees l l Largest # moved to Israel Since 1960 s, over 300, 000 settled in US, especially CA
Issues for Soviet Jews: l l Used to wide-range of Govt. services (jobs, housing, day care, etc. ), but no longer “White Europeans”: dominant race majority in US, but not in Soviet Union l Access to prosperous US Jewish communities l Difficulty finding good jobs, so menial labor l Marriage brokerage (young Russian women) l Culture and Language loss
New Immigrants from Africa Ø Largest Forced Migration: Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, c. 12 million slaves from Africa to Latin Am. , Caribbean, US (height of trade from 1600 -1800) Ø 1990: c. 500, 000 African-born people Ø Smallest # of immigrants in US Ø Africans have migrated to the US by choice throughout the 1900 s
3 waves of African migration to US Ø Students & professionals stayed in US due to political and economic struggles in Africa since the 1970 s. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 granted 400, 000 Africans immigrant status & relaxed the immigration policy toward Africans Ø Political refugees: mid-1980 s, especially from the conflict-torn Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and Sudan) Ø Diversity Visa program (lottery): 1990 s Immigration and Naturalization Services
Migration Politics Ø Labor Flow: cheap immigrant labor supports businesses around the world l l Undermines labor unions Status of established, legal workers Immigration Law: who will be allowed & what govt. benefits Ø US Ø Problem: “immigrant jobs” are less desirable, more stigmatized, less wellpaying
Migration Politics Ø Forced Migration: human rights violations Ø “Right of return” : displaced people have a guaranteed right to go home, 1974 UN “Inalienable right. ” (ex. Big issue for Palestinian refugees after 1948) Ø Health care? A universal human right!