Anthropology Experience Cultural Anthropology Copyright 2005 Allyn Bacon

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Anthropology Experience Cultural Anthropology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Anthropology Experience Cultural Anthropology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Before Fieldwork Research Question Research Design Implementation Funding Permits Visas Language Training Copyright 2005

Before Fieldwork Research Question Research Design Implementation Funding Permits Visas Language Training Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Participant Observation Positives Problems Access the Emic Language Determine Actual Behavior Lies Develop Rapport

Participant Observation Positives Problems Access the Emic Language Determine Actual Behavior Lies Develop Rapport Culture Shock Biculturalism Hawthorne Effect Ethics Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Subsistence Strategy How a culture gets its food may effect: Group Size Sedentism Economy

Subsistence Strategy How a culture gets its food may effect: Group Size Sedentism Economy Political Structure Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Food Collecting Foraging or Hunting/ Gathering Small Societies Seasonal Nomadism Use Rights Egalitarian Balanced

Food Collecting Foraging or Hunting/ Gathering Small Societies Seasonal Nomadism Use Rights Egalitarian Balanced Delayed Reciprocity Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Food Producing Horticulture Relying on small gardens + foraging Sedentary Populations Larger Societies Ranked

Food Producing Horticulture Relying on small gardens + foraging Sedentary Populations Larger Societies Ranked Social Structure Economies of Surplus Big Man/ Achieved Status Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Food Producing Pastoralism At least 50% subsistence from herd animals Eg. Cows, goats, reindeer

Food Producing Pastoralism At least 50% subsistence from herd animals Eg. Cows, goats, reindeer Larger, more sedentary groups than foragers Rely on trade Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Food Producing Agriculture Large-scale domestication of plants and animals Irrigation, machine and animal labor,

Food Producing Agriculture Large-scale domestication of plants and animals Irrigation, machine and animal labor, fertilizers Huge surplus Large, complex societies Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Relationships based on genetics (consanguinal) or marriage (affinal) Fictive Kin Copyright 2005 Allyn

Kinship Relationships based on genetics (consanguinal) or marriage (affinal) Fictive Kin Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Distinctions: Affinity Side of Family Sex of Linking Relative Gender, Age, Generation

Kinship Terminology Distinctions: Affinity Side of Family Sex of Linking Relative Gender, Age, Generation Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Kinship Terminology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Descent What Descends? Wealth Property Name Status Customs Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Descent What Descends? Wealth Property Name Status Customs Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Descent Types: Bilateral Ambilineal Double Unilineal Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Descent Types: Bilateral Ambilineal Double Unilineal Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Unilineal Descent Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Unilineal Descent Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Unilineal Descent Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Unilineal Descent Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Marriage A ritualized union of people creating kin. Alliances Children Copyright 2005 Allyn &

Marriage A ritualized union of people creating kin. Alliances Children Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Types of Marriage Polygamy Monogamy Polygyny Polyandry (fraternal) Serial Monogamy Copyright 2005 Allyn &

Types of Marriage Polygamy Monogamy Polygyny Polyandry (fraternal) Serial Monogamy Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Marriage and Exchange Dowry Bride Price Bride Service Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Marriage and Exchange Dowry Bride Price Bride Service Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Sex vs. Gender Sex Gender Biological Cultural Hormones Shared ideas Genetalia Based on the

Sex vs. Gender Sex Gender Biological Cultural Hormones Shared ideas Genetalia Based on the sexes Genetics Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Elements of Gender Ideology Genderlects Division of Labor Sexual Dimorphism Copyright 2005 Allyn &

Elements of Gender Ideology Genderlects Division of Labor Sexual Dimorphism Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Gender Asymmetry Differentiation + Evaluation Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Gender Asymmetry Differentiation + Evaluation Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Religion A Worldview involving beliefs and actions related to supernatural beings and forces. A

Religion A Worldview involving beliefs and actions related to supernatural beings and forces. A culture’s shared ideas and assumptions about the emicly defined universe and its cause. Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Magic Methods associated with the attempt to manipulate the supernatural world. Copyright 2005 Allyn

Magic Methods associated with the attempt to manipulate the supernatural world. Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Types of Supernaturals Animistic Zoomorphic Anthropomorphic Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Types of Supernaturals Animistic Zoomorphic Anthropomorphic Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Mythology: Narrative stories of supernatural forces and how they relate to the world Doctrine:

Mythology: Narrative stories of supernatural forces and how they relate to the world Doctrine: A religion’s codified ideas about the universe and often the resulting code of behavior Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Types of Cults Individualistic One-on-one interface with the supernatural Shamanistic Part time religious specialists

Types of Cults Individualistic One-on-one interface with the supernatural Shamanistic Part time religious specialists Altered states of consciousness Ecclesiastical Full time clergy Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Ritual Repeated, predictable behavior associated with the shared ideas and assumptions of a people.

Ritual Repeated, predictable behavior associated with the shared ideas and assumptions of a people. Tooth brushing Catholic Mass Greetings Weddings Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Rites of Passage Rituals of Transformation Child to adult Bachelor to husband Civilian to

Rites of Passage Rituals of Transformation Child to adult Bachelor to husband Civilian to soldier Three Stages Separation Transformation Reintegration Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon