Anthropology Experience Biological Anthropology Copyright 2005 Allyn Bacon

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Anthropology Experience Biological Anthropology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Anthropology Experience Biological Anthropology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Biological Anthropology Describe and explain the human organism Primatology Paleoanthropology Copyright 2005 Allyn &

Biological Anthropology Describe and explain the human organism Primatology Paleoanthropology Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

The Scientific Method Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

The Scientific Method Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

The Scientific Method Two rules when conducting science: Occam’s Razor Start with simplest hypothesis

The Scientific Method Two rules when conducting science: Occam’s Razor Start with simplest hypothesis first Saves time and resources Falsifiability Hypothesis must be testable Makes science possible Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Before Darwin Georges Cuvier (1724 – 1829) Catastrophism Divine Origins Charles Lyell (xxxxx) Uniformitarianism

Before Darwin Georges Cuvier (1724 – 1829) Catastrophism Divine Origins Charles Lyell (xxxxx) Uniformitarianism Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 – 1829) Principle of Use and Disuse Principle of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Natural Selection Intraspecific Variation More Children Than Adults Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Natural Selection Intraspecific Variation More Children Than Adults Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Natural Selection Reproductive Success Some variations live to reproduce Differential Mortality Some variations die

Natural Selection Reproductive Success Some variations live to reproduce Differential Mortality Some variations die before reproducing Current environmental conditions determine which variations will experience reproductive success and which will suffer differential mortality. Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Natural Selection Genetic Drift Random genetic changes Provides new variations in a species Provides

Natural Selection Genetic Drift Random genetic changes Provides new variations in a species Provides opportunity for speciation via natural selection Changing New Variations Environments Speciation or Extinction Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Whence Variation? Meiosis/ Sex: the production and union of haploid gametes Mutations During Meiosis:

Whence Variation? Meiosis/ Sex: the production and union of haploid gametes Mutations During Meiosis: introduces new variations Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Taxomony Ananolgies Traits shared due to similar function Homologies Traits share due to common

Taxomony Ananolgies Traits shared due to similar function Homologies Traits share due to common ancestry Ancestral Traits a specie inherited form its ancestors Derived Traits New traits a specie derived from natural selection Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Primate Characteristics Adaptations for an arboreal habitat: Elongated Digits Opposable Thumb Flat Nails Friction

Primate Characteristics Adaptations for an arboreal habitat: Elongated Digits Opposable Thumb Flat Nails Friction Skin Semi-erect Posture Reduced Sense of Smell Stereoscopic Vision Large Brain/Body Ratio Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Primate Taxonomy Primate Prosimian Anthropoid Monkeys, Apes, Hominids Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Primate Taxonomy Primate Prosimian Anthropoid Monkeys, Apes, Hominids Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Prosimians Loris Lemur Tarsier Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Prosimians Loris Lemur Tarsier Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Monkeys (Arboreal Quadrupeds) New World Monkeys Tropical forests of southern Mexico, Central, and South

Monkeys (Arboreal Quadrupeds) New World Monkeys Tropical forests of southern Mexico, Central, and South America Some have prehensile tails Old World Monkeys South and East Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Gibraltar (the southern tip of Spain) Some are terrestrial None have prehensile tails Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Apes (Brachiator Anatomy) Long arms Curved phalanges Scapula on the back Raised Pelvis Africa

Apes (Brachiator Anatomy) Long arms Curved phalanges Scapula on the back Raised Pelvis Africa and Asia Knuckle-walking Culture Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Fossils Mineralized Fossils Impression Fossils Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Fossils Mineralized Fossils Impression Fossils Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Dating Methods Relative Dating Reveal how old an object is in relation to other

Dating Methods Relative Dating Reveal how old an object is in relation to other objects Does not provide numerical dates Example: Stratigraphic Dating Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Dating Methods Direct Dating Directly dating an object by chemical means Also called chronometric

Dating Methods Direct Dating Directly dating an object by chemical means Also called chronometric or absolute dating Example: Potassium Argon Dating Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Australopithecus afarensis 4. 2 -2. 5 mya 433 cc mean cranial capacity Long arms

Australopithecus afarensis 4. 2 -2. 5 mya 433 cc mean cranial capacity Long arms Curved phalanges Height - F: 3. 4 ft. / M: 5 ft. Apish cranial anatomy Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Australopithecus africanus 2. 5 mya 454 cc mean cranial capacity Long arms Curved Phalanges

Australopithecus africanus 2. 5 mya 454 cc mean cranial capacity Long arms Curved Phalanges Height - F: 3. 8 ft. / M: 4. 5 ft. Apish Cranial Anatomy Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Paranthropus 2 mya 475 cc mean cranial capacity “Dished” face Sagittal crest Large mandible

Paranthropus 2 mya 475 cc mean cranial capacity “Dished” face Sagittal crest Large mandible Large grinding teeth Similar body to Australopithecus Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Homo habilis 2. 0 mya 612 mean cranial capacity Less apish cranial anatomy Height

Homo habilis 2. 0 mya 612 mean cranial capacity Less apish cranial anatomy Height – M: ? / F: 3. 3 ft Oldowan Tools Manufactured Manuports Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Homo erectus 1. 9 mya 994 cc mean cranial capacity Less apish face Fully

Homo erectus 1. 9 mya 994 cc mean cranial capacity Less apish face Fully modern body Acheulian Tools Flaked Bifaced Migration As far as China and Northern Europe Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Why Bipedalism? The Savanna Hypothesis Greater view above grasses Carry things further More energy

Why Bipedalism? The Savanna Hypothesis Greater view above grasses Carry things further More energy efficient Thermoregulation Less sunlight Exposure to cooler air Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

How More Brains? The Radiator Hypothesis Must keep brains cool Vascular system Endocasts reveal

How More Brains? The Radiator Hypothesis Must keep brains cool Vascular system Endocasts reveal cranial vascular system A. africanus selects strong cranial ‘radiator’ to cool brains Allows encephalization Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Human Variation Skin Color UV Radiation A stressor Melanin Tan (Temporary) Natural Selection: Darker

Human Variation Skin Color UV Radiation A stressor Melanin Tan (Temporary) Natural Selection: Darker Populations Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Human Variation Body Shape Bergmann’s Rule Cold Climate = Bulky Body Allen’s Rule Warm

Human Variation Body Shape Bergmann’s Rule Cold Climate = Bulky Body Allen’s Rule Warm Climate = Longer Limbs Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon

Human Variation Nose Shape Air must be 95% humidity before it reaches the lungs

Human Variation Nose Shape Air must be 95% humidity before it reaches the lungs Nasal Index Breadth/height x 100 Increases according to the humidity of the air in which the population evolved Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon